ECU – Extreme close-up shot. A shot in which the subject is much larger than the frame. Provides more detail than a close-up. The abbreviation is often used in a slug line.
ECN-2 – Process for color negative films.
ECP-2 – Process for color print films.
ED – “ED” refers to Extra Low Dispersion glass made by Nikon for some of its lenses. It ensures apochromatic-like performance, with high contrast and sharper images. An ED lens is one that has ED glass in one or more of its elements.
ED Beta – Extended Definition Beta. Improved version of the original half-inch Betamax video format, yielding sharper pictures with 500-line resolution. See Betamax. “Legacy” format.
EDL – An acronym for “Edit Decision List”. 1. A Handwritten or computer-generated list of a video production’s edit points. It is a compilation of all post-production edit decisions made for a program in the form of a printed copy or electronic copy, which is used to assemble the project at a later date. 2. List of edits prepared on a non-linear editor in timecode, during the off-line edit. A complete list of time code numbers for each shot and sound used in the offline edit master. These time code numbers are used to create the final online.
EE – The live signal. An incoming video signal (input signal) is immediately routed to the output.
EEPROM – Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory. A type of memory chip that can hold data even when power is removed. The memory can be erased electronically so that new data can be stored.
EF – Abbreviation for “electronic flash.”
EFL – Effective (or Equivalent) Focal Length – Describes the focal length of a digital camera’s lens as if it was being used on a full-frame 35 mm camera. Most but not all digital cameras are equipped with sensors smaller than the image area of 35mm film, therefore requiring correspondingly shorter focal lengths to capture a given angle of view. (See Using 35mm SLR lenses on dSLR camera bodies.)
EFP – Electronic Field Production. 1. Production of a television program or program segment by using portable video cameras, VTRs, and sound equipment outside the studios. EFP is characterized by generally higher production quality than ENG. 2. Film-style production approach using a single camera to record on location. Typically shot for post-production application, non-live feed.
EI – Exposure Index (See definition below). A number that indicates a film’s effective speed.
EIA– Electronics Industries Alliance. The association which determines recommended audio and video standards in the United
EIA RS-170A -mThe timing specification standard for NTSC broadcast video equipment.
EMI – ElectroMagnetic Interference. An electrical disturbance caused by an electromagnetic field, usually either low frequency or radio frequency (RF).
ENG – Electronic News Gathering. Use of portable video cameras, lighting and sound equipment to record news events in the field quickly, conveniently, and efficiently, for the production of daily news stories and short documentaries.
EP(extended play) – Slowest tape speed of a VHS VCR, accommodating six-hour recordings. See LP, SP.
EPROM – Erasable programmable read-only memory. A type of memory chip that can hold data even when power is removed. The memory can be erased (usually by ultraviolet light exposure) so that new data can be stored.
EPS – Short for “Encapsulated Post-Script,” EPS is useful in transferring PostScript art (e.g. a photograph, page layout or graphics) from one application to another.
EVF – Electronic ViewFinder. A camera’s relatively-small LCD display that provides the photographer with through-the-lens viewing.
Exif – Exchangeable Image File Format. Data produced by a digital camera that becomes attached to each image made by the camera,including the make and model of the camera, type of lens and focal length, date and time, image format (e.g. jpeg, tiff, etc.) and dimensions, color & exposure modes, shutter speed, aperture setting, ISO sensitivity, focal length of lens, distance to subject, whether the flash was on or off, white balance, exposure bias, metering mode and camera orientation when the picture was taken. Some EXIF Data can be added afterwards, such as photographer name and copyright owner. When you take a picture with your digital camera, your camera records that picture’s EXIF data into the image file. The data can then be used in a number of ways – to manager and organize your photographs, conduct image searches and reveal information about what went into taking that photograph. See also my Image Glossary for more about Exif.
early reflections – A reverb algorithm whose output consists of a number of closely spaced discrete echoes, designed to mimic the bouncing of sound off of nearby walls in an acoustic space.
early reflected sound – created by sound waves which are reflected (bounced) off surfaces between the source and the listener. The sound waves arrive at the listener’s ear closely on the heels of the direct sound wave.
easel – A darkroom device used to hold paper flat while exposing it to light from an enlarger. An easel creates a white border surrounding a print because its “arms” block light from striking the print paper’s edges. The sliding arms can be adjusted vertically and horizontally in order to create prints of specific measurements – e.g. 4″ X 6″ or 5″ X 7″ and so on. An easel holds paper flat while exposing it to light from an enlarger.
Easter Egg – A reference to a movie, person, or event that is intended to be too subtle to be noticed on the initial viewing.
echo — a distinct repeating tone; a discrete repetition of a sound, as opposed to reverberation, which is a continuous wash of closely spaced, non-discrete echoing sound. See delay, reverb.
echo cancellation – a means of eliminating echo from an audio path.
edge crop – A technique whereby just the center portions of a wide aspect ratio format are viewable.
edge damage – Physical damage to the edge of the film or perforation.
edge number – 1. Sequential numbers printed along the edge of a film strip by the manufacturer which allow frames to be easily identified either by human or machine. 2. Numbers printed on the edge of a print to allow easy identification of frames, or that identify the film; used to help match original film and sound to edited work-prints. Latent-image edge numbers are put on by the manufacturer, and appear during development. Printed edge numbers are placed on the film by the lab, and can be coded for all materials so that any number of picture and sound rolls will have the same sequence. See also keykode.
edgewax – Waxing method recommended for lubricating release prints; treatment is with a solution of 50 grams of paraffin wax per litre of trichloromethane applied only to the edges of the emulsion side of the film.
edit – Process or result of selectively recording video and/or audio on finished videotape. Typically involves reviewing raw footage and transferring desired segments from master tape(s) onto new tape in a predetermined sequence. See assemble edit, in-camera editing, insert edit.
edit buffer – An area of memory used for making changes in the current patch. Usually the contents of the edit buffer will be lost when the instrument is switched off; a write operation is required to move the data to a more permanent area of memory for long-term storage.
edit controls – Some VCRs and camcorders can have their transport actions directly controlled via cables. Most DV devices can also be controlled from the PC through a FireWire® cable.
edit controller – Electronic programmer used in conjunction with VCRs &camcorders to facilitate automated videotape editing with speed, precision, and convenience.
edit control protocols – Types of signals designed to communicate between computers and tape decks–record, pause, rewind and so on.
edited master – See master.
edit suite – Room where editing is done.
editing – also Visual Editing, Film Editing 1. Reconstructing the sequence of events in a movie. 2. Production of finished videotape from source tape. Editing usually involves the use of a computer editing system to select scenes and audio from multiple video and audio sources and record them into a finished program on a single videotape.
editor – 1. A person who performs editing (in consultation with the director) on a movie. This term usually refers to someone who does visual editing. 2. An editing system operator. Also the informal term used for an edit controller.
editor/librarian – Computer software that allows the user to load and store patches and banks of patches (the librarian) and edit parameters (the editor).
editor interface – A serial communications link between an edit controller and peripheral devices, such as a video switcher and tape/storage machines. The editor interface allows the edit controller to send control commands to the peripherals and receive status reports from the peripherals.
effect – Also effects. 1. To add an image or sound to an original piece of film data that was not there before. Done to make the original piece more interesting. Process is mostly carried out electronically. 2. Any form of audio signal processing that provides reverbs, delays, chorus, and other audio and spatial effects to sweeten,liven and animate audio as well as to create the sound of a space or environment.
effects stock – Special film stock that is typically used by the second unit to generate computerized composites. Effects stock usually has finer film grain, and is usually rated several stops lower than standard stock.
Electret condenser – Microphone type incorporating a pre-charged element, eliminating need for bulky power sources. See condenser.
electrical department – The department in charge of all electrical matters (primarily lighting) for productions.
electrician – The person or grip in charge of and familiar with the electrical equipment on the set.
electromagnetic spectrum – The entire range of electromagnetic radiation; all of its wavelengths, including those of visible light.
electronic flash – Artificial light source produced by an electrical discharge traveling between two electrodes through a gas-filled clear glass or plastic tube. The light from electronic flash is brief and approximately the same color as daylight. Also erroneously but commonly called a “strobe.” Electronic flash units are reusable, unlike old-fashioned flash bulbs which burned out with one use.
electronic noise – or just noise . This is the grainy look you find in a digital image caused by image artifacts. It may also appear as flecks of color that should not be there. It is usually noticeable in shadow areas, and generally produced when shooting in low light. Noise is almost always unwanted and unattractive. See also my Image Glossary. Image noise often appears as visual features next to edges, most especially next to edges in the human figure, whether clothed, unclothed, or any other way; and in the human figure, noise is most prone to appear in and around the face and hair This is usually worse in jpegs, the world’s most common image format. Shadow noise is often patterns and other visual shapes not present in the original and not usually present in any normal shadow. Note, too, that realistic or representational images are not the only ones which become noisy, online – any image can have these artifacts in them.
electronic noise reduction – Better known simply as noise reduction. In some cameras, noise reduction can be activated or switches on automatically at slow shutter speeds. Note that noise reduction often requires more time for the photo to be written to the memory card, during which you will be unable to take a picture.
element – A single lens that is a component of a compound lens.
embedded – Embedded usually stands for embedded audio in video (AIV). Via SDI or HD-SDI up to 16 channels of audio (AES/EBU) can be transmitted. While this is the easiest way to transmit audio together with video, a working on audio alone is normally not possible with this connection. See also AES/EBU and AIV.
emissive technology – any display device that emits light to create an image.
emulsion – 1. Light sensitive photographic composition material consisting of gelatin, silver halides and any additional coating or filter layer added by the manufacturer, suspended in gelatin for coating a surface of a film, photographic paper and the like. The image is formed in the emulsion. 2. The photosensitive coating on film that contains the images and other information; the photo sensitive layer on a piece of film or paper, as distinguished from the backing, base, substratum, or filter layers.
emulsion number – A number identifying a complete coating from a single emulsion batch or mixture.
emulsion side – The side of a film coated with emulsion.
emulsion speed – The photo-sensitivity of a film, usually expressed as an index number based on the film manufacturer’s recommendations for the use of the film under typical conditions of exposure and development.
emulsion side – The side of the film or photographic paper that has the emulsion coating on it. The emulsion side of film is recognized by being dull, whereas the emulsion side of paper is shiny.
encode – 1. The process of combining analog or digital video signals, e.g., red, green and blue, into a composite signal. 2. Often used in the same context as compression. Taking one media format and making it into another. e.g., used to change original content from a Non-Linear Editing system (NLE) to a new format in a smaller size to save space and play on a different type of system such as DVD or Blu-ray. Also referred to as transcoding.
encoded – 1. a signal that has been compressed into another form to reduce size or complexity, as in a composite video signal. 2. To say that a work is encoded implies that part or all of it is written in computer code or some other language that requires interpretation (e.g., dance notation). In the case of works with non-digital components, this code can sometimes be archived separately from the work itself.
encoder – “Combiner” device that translates a video signal into a different format — RGB to composite. Horizontal and vertical sync information joins individual red/green/blue components.
encoding – The process of converting uncompressed image/s to a new format, usually compressed. e.g. Mpeg, MP4, QuickTime, WMV, H264 etc.
enhancer – See image enhancer.
enhancement – An enhancement is an improvement. Enhancement of a photographic image is accomplished in an image-editing application, and may involve changes in brightness, color, contrast and other characteristics of the image.
enlargement – A photographic print in which the scale of an object is larger than the same object in the negative, or a digital image that is larger than the camera’s image sensor. In popular use, however, most people think of an enlargement as being substantially larger than the image area of most negative sizes or sensors – a print that is at least 5″ X 7″ or 8″ X 10″ in size. Also known as a “Blow-up.”
enlarger – An adjustable light projection device used in a darkroom to project an enlarged image from a negative through a lens onto photographic paper in various degrees of enlargement.
environmental portrait – A portrait in which the subject’s surrounding environment is also included in the photograph.
envelope—1. A form that is altered by time; a shape that changes as a function of time. The shape of a synthesizer’s envelope is controlled by a set of rate (or time) and level parameters. The envelope is a control signal that can be applied to various aspects of a synth sound, such as pitch, filter cutoff frequency, and overall amplitude. Usually, each note has its own envelope. 2. A shape that changes as a function of time. The shape of a synthesizer’s envelope is often controlled by Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release parameters (ADSR). The Attack is the start or onset of the initial transient sound. Decay is the roll-off of the sound’s waveform just after the peak of the initial attack. Sustain is the consistent volume of the sound sustained over the duration of time while a key is held down. And Release is length of time for the sound to end after the key is released. Envelopes can be applied to various aspects of a synth sound, such as pitch, filter cutoff frequency, and overall amplitude.
envelope generator – A device that generates an envelope. Also known as a contour generator or transient generator, because the envelope is a contour (shape) that is used to create some of the transient (changing) characteristics of the sound. See ADSR, envelope.
envelope tracking – A function (also called keyboard tracking, key follow, and keyboard rate scaling) that changes the length of one or more envelope segments depending on which key on the keyboard is being played. Envelope tracking is most often used to give the higher notes shorter envelopes and the lower notes longer envelopes, mimicking the response characteristics of percussion-activated acoustic instruments, such as guitar and marimba.
epic – A film with large dramatic scope or that required an immense production.
equalization (EQ) – 1. Process of altering the frequency response of a video amplifier to compensate for high-frequency losses in coaxial cable. 2. In audio,to improve the sound quality by increasing or decreasing the gain of the signal at various frequencies. 3. Emphasizing specific audio or video frequencies and eliminating others as signal control measure, usually to produce particular sonic qualities, or to correct imbalances.
equalizer – electronic equipment that adjusts or corrects the frequency characteristics of a signal.
equipment rack – a centralized housing unit that protects and organizes electronic equipment.
equivalent exposures – Shutter speed and aperture combinations that give proper exposure for the same scene are called “equivalent exposures.”
essence data or essence media – All multimedia program content has two parts, essence and metadata. Essence data is the actual video/visual media. This data can be one or more of a variety of essence data types – 1. Video Data, This can be uncompressed video, RGB, HDTV, 2,000 X 2,000 pixel moving images, proprietary video file architectures, or one of the common compressed video formats such as MPEG-2, QuickTime, .AVI, DV, etc., and 2. Audio Data, This could include any digital audio source e.g., audio clip from a single track on an NLE, .AIFF, .WAV, Audio CD, DAT, etc..
essential area – Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of size differences in receiver displays. Also called “critical area” and “safe title area,” encompasses 80 percent of total screen.
establishing shot – The first shot of a new scene, or the opening picture of a program or scene. Usually a wide and/or distant perspective, orients the viewer to overall setting and surroundings and introduces the audience to the space in which the forthcoming scene will take place. See long shot.
estar base – The trademark name applied to the polyethylene terephthalate film base manufactured by Eastman Kodak Company.
evaluative metering – Multi-area metering, measuring light in several zones of a scene with the goal of providing a satisfactory overall exposure of the entire scene. (Also known as Matrix, Multi-area or Multi-segment metering.)
event editing — 1. when a sequencer changes a single musical occurrence. 2. An operation in a sequencer in which one musical event at a time is altered.
evergreen – “Future proofing”, refers to keeping your material current in technology.
Executive Producer – also Executive in Charge of Production. A producer who is not involved in any technical aspects of the filmmaking process, but who is still responsible for the overall production. Typically an executive producer handles business and legal issues. See also associate producer, co-producer, line producer.
existing light – The light that is naturally illuminating a scene without any additional light added by the photographer. Ambient light and available light are two other terms that mean the same thing.
expander – an audio processor that comes in two types – a downward expander and a part of a compander.
exposition – Background information necessary to the advancement of the storyline or to augment richness or detail.
exposure – 1. Exposure occurs when light is permitted to strike a digital camera’s image sensor or a traditional camera’s film – i.e. when the sensor/film is exposed to light. 2. Exposure is the total amount of light striking the sensor/film or other photographic material. 3. Also refers to a combination of shutter speed and aperture used in exposing the sensor/film in a camera, as in “My light meter shows an exposure (or an exposure reading) of 1/125 second at ƒ/11.” Aperture and shutter speed combinations are referred to as “exposure settings.” “Proper exposure” refers to an exposure setting that produces an image satisfactory to the photographer. “Correct exposure” is that amount of light that makes an acceptably-good image. 4. Amount of light that acts on a photographic material; product of illumination intensity (controlled by the lens opening) and duration (controlled by the shutter opening and the frame rate).
exposure compensation – Deliberately changing the exposure settings recommended by a light meter in order to obtain proper exposure. (Sometimes an exposure meter or light meter is “tricked” into providing settings that will underexpose or overexpose an image, for example, when the subject is relatively small in a field of bright, white snow. In such a case, a light meter may provide exposure settings that would underexpose the subject, and the photographer needs to “compensate” to obtain proper exposure.) The range of brightness, including shadow detail, that a film or digital sensor can record in a single image before the highlights wash out or the shadows become muddy – is that film’s or sensor’s exposure latitude.
exposure index – or EI. Number assigned to a film that expresses its relative sensitivity to light. The EI is based on the film emulsion speed, a standard exposure technique, and specific processing solutions.
exposure latitude – Degree to which film can be underexposed or overexposed and still yield satisfactory results, and so a measure of a specific film’s or a digital sensor’s ability to be overexposed or underexposed and still produce an acceptable image. It is measured in a range of ƒ-stops. Most negative films (regardless of brand name) have an exposure latitude of five to seven stops, whereas most transparency (slide) films have less exposure latitude –– in the range of three to five ƒ-stops. There is almost no exposure latitude when shooting digitally – perhaps a third of a stop. Therefore, the degree to which film can be underexposed or overexposed without damaging the image.
exposure meter – An instrument containing a light-sensitive cell used to measure the amount of light reflected from or falling on a subject. The measurement is usually expressed in shutter speed and aperture combinations that will render an acceptable exposure. Also known as a light meter.
exposure meter, incident – A meter calibrated to read and integrate all the light aimed at and failing on a subject within a large area. Scale may be calibrated in footcandles or in photographic exposure settings.
exposure meter, reflectance – A meter calibrated to read the amount of light, within a more restricted area, reflecting from the surface of a subject or an overall scene. (Scale may be calibrated in foot-candles or in photographic exposure settings.)
exposure setting – 1. The lens opening selected to expose the film. 2. The aperture and shutter speed combination used to expose the film in a camera.
exposure value – The Exposure Value (EV) system, which originated in Germany in the 1950s, was created to be a simple to use substitute for the shutter speed/aperture combination at a given ISO, using a single number instead of a combination of numbers. A change of one EV is equivalent to a one stop change – that is, a one stop adjustment in either shutter speed, aperture or ISO setting. EV is typically used when adjusting exposure compensation and image bracketing, where +1EV, for example, means a one stop increase in exposure.
extension tubes – Tubes made from metal or rigid plastic inserted between the lens and the camera, thereby making the lens to film distance greater. The result is increased magnification for close-up photography. They are sometimes also referred to as “extension rings”. They are frequently sold in sets of three different lengths, each of which can be used on its own or in combination with the others. When stacking more than one extension tube between the camera and lens, magnification can exceed life size. However, exposure time can be quite long as magnification increases since light must travel much further to strike the sensor or film.
exterior – also EXT. Used in a slug line, indicates that the scene occurs outdoors.
extra – A person who appears in a movie where a non-specific, non-speaking character is required, usually as part of a crowd or in the background of a scene. Extras are often recruited from wherever they are available. Contrast with non-speaking role. They are accessory talent not essential to a production, assuming some peripheral on-camera role. In movie work, performers with fewer than five lines are called “under fives.”
eyeline match – A technique used in visual effects to make sure an actor is looking at the “face” of the character/creature to be inserted later. One approach, is to sync a laser to the camera so that it is on only when the shutter is closed, and makes a dot where the creature’s eyes would be. More commonly, a grip holds a target on a pole.