H.264 – 1. a codec which is part of the mpeg-4 standard for high definition video. H.264 is very efficient and enables delivering very high quality at relatively low bit rates. This is especially useful for InterNet content and use on mobile devices. It is also one of the mandated standards for blu-ray, being capable of encoding video at high bit rates. 2. the high-compression multimedia format/technology supported by apple® ipod® and sony® psp®. H.264 encoding delivers high-quality videos with two to three times the compression efficiency of solutions such as the mpeg-2 standard, which is used in DVD video.
HAD – Hole-Accumulated Diode. A CCD sensor structure designed to suppress certain types of noise inherent to CCDs. see also CCD.
HD – an acronym for High Definition video image or format. It is frequently used to abbreviate HDEP & HDTV.
HDCam – a high definition videotape format developed by sony electronics. It utilizes 1/2 inch wide tape stock and a compression ratio of 2.7:1 at 440MB/second.
HD D-5 – a recording system that uses compression at about 4:1 to record HD material on standard D-5 cassettes.
HDEP – High Definition Electronic Production. This standard denotes 1125 scanning lines per frame; 60 fields per second; 2:1 interlace; an aspect ratio of 16×9; extended colorimetry; a 30mhz base bandwidth for each of its three color components. Also known as SMPTE 240.
HD DVR – High Definition (HD) Digital Video Recording devices are available, and affordable, for consumers. The DVRs offer all the functionality of a standard DVR (like TiVo) but also allow for viewing and recording of HD broadcasts. If you are a Cable subscriber, there are HD DVRs available to lease from the providers for a monthly fee. Satellite providers have HD DVRs available to purchase. There are also Media Center PCs and TV Capture Cards with HD compatibility. Satellite TV comes in two varieties, DirecTV and Dish Network. Each company offers a High Definition Digital Video Recorder that also works as a Satellite Receiver. Dish Network offers customers the ViP722 DVR, a dual-tuner, two-TV HD DVR receiver. This is Dish Network’s top-of-the-line Receiver, as it allows you to watch and record both HD and SD broadcasts, while also using the receiver as a DVR. It is a Dual-tuner Receiver for recording one show while watching another, and includes a hefty Hard Drive for up to 350 hours of SD recording, and up to 55 hours of HD recording. It also provides an Electronic Programming Guide (EPG) for scheduling recordings in advance. DirecTV offers an HD DVR that includes the TiVo Service built-in to the Receiver. Not only do you receive HD Broadcasts for recording, you get a fully functional TiVo DVR. It includes Dual-tuners, a 250GB Hard Drive and the TiVo EPG. Cable TV providers offer HD DVRs at a very affordable rate, a much better price than Satellite providers. You can have a fully functional High Definition Digital Video Recorder with over 100GB of storage space and Dual-tuners. Most Cable companies are now offering HD DVR service for a low monthly fee, and provide their customers with either a Motorola DCT6412 HD DVR, or a Scientific Atlanta 8300HD DVR, depending on the Cable provider. It’s really nice to have an HD DVR for such a low price. After Satellite and Cable, the options for HD Digital Video Recording include Sony’s brand of HD DVRs (that only work with Analog Cable TV), and Computers that include High Definition TV Capture Cards. Sony makes two HD DVR models, the DHG-HDD500 and the DHG-HDD250. Both of these DVRs work with existing analog cable systems, and include a free Electronic Programming Guide (EPG). They also include antenna for recording free over-the-air HDTV. The DHG-HDD500 can record and store at least 60 hours of high-definition video and up to 400 hours of standard-definition video, while the HDD250 can record at least 30 hours of high definition and up to 200 hours of standard definition video. Both include multiple analog inputs and outputs as well as Component, HDMI and digital audio outputs. These are expensive and high-end DVRs that are ideal for analog cable subscribers who want the ability to record HD signals free over-the-air. ATI, a PCI card for analog TV, over-the-air digital TV and full quality free over-the-air HDTV reception. It offers Digital Video Recorder capabilities, with the controls to watch, pause and record TV to your computers hard drive, or to CDs and DVDs. In addition to analog cable support, the HDTV WONDER includes an HDTV antenna which allows consumers to experience over-the-air HDTV broadcasts without having to subscribe to Cable or Satellite service charges. An antenna is used to pick up OTA HD Broadcasts, which can then be recorded and time-shifted like any DVR system. The AVerMedia AVerTVHD MCE A180 is a PCI ATSC HDTV TV and Video Capture Card for free over-the-air digital TV and full quality free over-the-air HDTV reception. This allows for free over-the-air HDTV on a PC, so you can watch, pause and record HDTV programs on your PC. To use this card you must buy a seperate HDTV antenna. The ATI card works on Windows XP or Windows Media Center O/S. The AverMedia card only works with Windows Media Center. Microsoft’s Windows Media Center Operating System is now offered by many computer manufacturer’s and many of those manufacturer’s offer an HDTV upgrade to either an ATI or Avermedia HD card. Or, if you don’t want to use the Media Center O/S, then the ATI card could be used on a Windows XP machine.
HDR rendering or HDRR, and HDR lighting – HDR is abbreviation for High Dynamic Range. It is the rendering of 3d computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in a high dynamic range. Specifically it refers to the new lighting model used to illuminate 3d worlds. Video games and computer generated movies greatly benefit from this as it creates far more realistic scenes than with conventional lighting models.
HDRI – High Dynamic Range Imaging. It´s a set of techniques that allow a far greater dynamic range of exposures than normal digital imaging techniques. The intention of HDRI is to accurately represent the wide range of intensity levels found in real scenes ranging from direct sunlight to the deepest shadows. An HDRI image has an extra floating point value associated with each pixel that is used to define the persistence of light at that point. Until recently, a High-Dynamic Range Image was be created from several digital photographs with different exposures combined to show the full range of light. Nowadays, specialized cameras have the capability to capture a large dynamic range of exposure which can even exceed the natural human range of vision.
HD-SDI – an acronym for High Definition Serial Digital Interface. Describes the transmission of digital video in HDTV (1920 x 1080).
HDTV – High-Definition TeleVision. 1. A TV format capable of displaying on a wider screen (16×9 as opposed to the conventional 4×3) and at a higher resolution, approximately twice as high as standard TV. Most commonly available in two resolutions: HD720 – 1280×720, Aspect ratio = 1.777; and HD1080 – 1920×1080, Aspect ratio = 1.777 2. Collective term for television and video formats of a resolution higher than standard TV. There are various formats and standards. The most common formats that are standardized by SMPTE and others have 1280 x 720 pixels (SMPTE 296m) and 1920 x 1080 pixels (SMPTE 274m). In some countries they are already used for broadcasting television programs. Besides television applications the HDTV equipment is also used in production and post production of feature films. Both formats can be used with frame rates from 23.976 up to 60 frames per second. While 1920 x 1080 typically is used with interlaced scanning, in this case with a maximum frame rate of 30 fps, 1280 x 720 is always progressive but with frame rates up to 60 fps, i.e. the frame rate of the 1280 x 720 format is normally twice the frame rate of the 1920 x 1080 format. With that said, the data rates of both formats are about the same. That is why most HDTV devices support both formats. If 1920 x 1080 is used with 50 or 60 fps in progressive mode the data rate is about as twice as high.
HSDL – an acronym for “high-speed data link”. it is used to transmit and receive uncompressed 2k or 4k images. It is an expansion of the dual-link HD-SDI interface offering an easy way at a production site to share such data. With HSDL the frame rate has to be reduced to 15 to 20 fps for 2k or even 5 fps for 4k images. See also frame rate, HD-SDI, SDI, and dual link.
HI-Z – or -z looping input. An impedance input circuit which also includes an output to enable routing the signal to another piece of equipment.
HMI lights – mercury arc lamps with metal halide additives to adjust the color balance. Usually rated at 5400k.
HOD – an abbreviation for Head Of Department. Sometimes known in the U.S. as coordinators.
HSV – Hue, Saturation, and Value. A color mode that determines the shading and tint of a color. Hue corresponds to the pure color; saturation to the amount of hue per unit area; and value to the amount of white or black mixed with the hue.
HTML5 – Hyper Text Markup Language, version 5. An increasingly popular language for use on the internet. one advantage is the provision for embedding video and audio directly in HTML5. This makes delivering video and audio more efficient directly through web browsers.
Hz – Hertz. Measures a frequency in number of cycles per second. See frequency and sample rate, both of which are measured in Hz.
H (horizontal) – in television signals, may refer to any of the following: the horizontal period or rate; the horizontal line of video information; the horizontal sync pulse.
H&D curve – the graph made by plotting the density of a film sample against the log of the exposure that made that density. Named after Messrs. Hurter and Driffield who created the science of sensitometry.
H & V lock time – the length of time it takes for a device to lock to horizontal and vertical sync.
halation – a defect of photographic films and plates. Light forming an image on the film is scattered by passing through the emulsion or by reflection at the emulsion or base surfaces. This scattered light causes a local fog that is especially noticeable around image of light sources or sharply defined highlight areas. Halation is also blurred effect at the edges of a highlight area of a photograph caused by reflection of light that passed through the film or the light is reflected from either the surface of the film or the camera back.
Hanning window – this is the name for the frequency plot of audio data in applications such as Audacity. Actually it is a Hann window, but Hanning is widely accepted. Hanning is a procedure for smoothing spectra in order to reduce uncertainties due to truncation of the original data. Technical information and the equations for the Hanning function are here.
hard – 1. as applied to a photographic emulsion or developer, having a high contrast. 2. as applied to the lighting of a set, specular (mirrorlike) or harsh, giving sharp dense shadows and glaring highlight.
hard-copy – generally refers to a printed copy of material, from electronically stored material, such as on a computer. A photographic print of an image is, for example, a hard-copy. However, it is not a hard-copy when seen on a computer or online. Hard-copy means physical copy.
hard disk – a digital data storage rigid, magnetic disk. Hard disks are common digital storage component in a computer. For video use, hard disks need an access time of less than 10 milliseconds, and a sustained throughput (data transfer rate) of 3 megabytes per second, and a maximum time for housekeeping of 33 milliseconds (one video frame).
hard disk recording — 1. Computerized recording that changes sound to digital data for computer storage. 2. A computer-based form of tapeless recording in which incoming audio is converted into digital data and stored on a hard disk.
hard light – type of light that creates brilliant highlights and sharp shadows.
hard neg – a high contrast negative. A low contrast negative is called a soft neg.
hardtop – slang for a normal indoor theater. See also ozoner.
hardware-for-hardware – a type of emulation consisting of refabrication or substitution of an artwork’s equipment or material. For example, to imitate the physical appearance of the obsolete video monitors in an original video installation by Nam June Paik, reconstructors might custom-build cathode-ray tubes or embed flat screens in old television casings.
hardware render – 3D animation. Hardware render differs from the other render methods in that is is extensively used as a real-time display renderer by simulation applications. It can also be used to render image files to the hard-disk. As the name implies, hardware rendering is an interactive rendering method that uses the capabilities of a computer’s graphics card (GPU) to create lighting and texturing effects, as opposed to the CPU. Typically, the scene is Gouraud shaded, hidden surfaces are removed and lighting is incorporated without shadows. The amount of finesse depends on the installed graphics hardware. See rendering.
hard white clip – stops the composite video going above a predetermined level.
harmonic – a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. for example, a wave with twice the frequency of the fundamental frequency is called the second harmonic. Most sounds are made up of a mix of different frequencies. In musical sounds, the component frequencies are simple (integer) multiples of each other, for example 100 hz, 200 hz, 300 hz. These are called harmonics of the lowest frequency sound. Harmonics are higher frequency sound waves that blend with the fundamental frequency. If the fundamental frequency of a sound is 440hz, then the first two harmonics are 880hz and 1,320hz (1.32khz). See overtone.
harmonic distortion – the production of harmonics at the output of a circuit when a periodic wave is applied to its input. The level of the distortion is usually expressed as a percentage of the level of the input.
Harry – trade name of a sophisticated digital effects system by Quantel. Includes Quantel’s Paintbox Digital Effects Generator.
Hays Production Code – also Hays Code, Hays Production Office, Hays Office. In the 1920s, the american public became alarmed at the increasingly frequent portrayal of violence, sex, and lawlessness on movie screens. Wishing to avoid government regulation, the motion picture producers and distributors of america created their own regulatory body and appointed postmaster general Will H. Hays as head. His influence became so great that this body became known as the “Hays Office”. The Hays Production Code for motion pictures was introduced in 1934, and by today’s standards was extremely strict. it was mainly concerned with violence and sex, but had references to crime in general. After WWII, the growing popularity of television provided the public with more viewing choice. The hays office came under increasing fire for restricting the creativity of film-makers, as it had defined specific requirements for depicting certain events. For example, under the Hays code a film-maker could not present revenge in modern times as being justified, nor could they depict details of how crimes were committed, or show a criminal profiting from crime. Following the Supreme Court’s miracle decision in the 1950s, films were recognized as protected under the first amendment, and as such the Hays office’s demands were not legally enforceable. Films such as Who’s Afraid Of Virginia Woolf? and Blowup inspired MPAA President Jack Valenti to abolish the Hays code as his first step in overhauling the Certificates system in 1967. See also black-listing.
haze – an atmospheric condition characterized by fine particles of dust, smoke or moisture in the air that causes a loss of contrast in an image because the haze scatters light particles.
head – 1. the uppermost portion of a tripod or pedestal which provides for the ability to pan and tilt the camera. 2. electromagnetic components within camcorders and VCRs that record, receive, and erase video and audio signals on magnetic tape. See fluid head, friction head.
head and full – terms for color value ranges indicating a restricted value range that provides headroom (head) and the full value range (full). A scene in post production is most likely worked upon in RGB in the full value range (8 bit: 0 = black, 255 = white). However, during broadcast the images have to be color converted to receive a “legal” broadcast signal. Such a signal must provide headroom in the color values to account for tolerances and a possible signal overshooting that may occur during the sampling of analog video signals. The color values have to be converted from RGB in the full value range to YUV in the restricted value range (mostly 16 = black, 235 = white).
head and tail – video or audio material at the beginning (head) or end (tail) of a clip that is available on the storage of a non-linear editing system but not used nor visible in the timeline due to an adjustment (trimming) of the clip’s in or out point. Clips that are recorded with heads and/or tails offer reserves in their content for further corrections during editing.
head-end – the equipment located at the start of a cable distribution system where the signals are processed and combined prior to distribution.
headroom — 1a. how much signal beyond the minimum amount of input that can be transmitted to or from a computerized device before deterioration starts. 1b. the amount of additional signal above the nominal input level that can be sent into or out of an electronic device before clipping distortion occurs. 2. the difference between the peak level of an audio track and the maximum level that can be achieved without clipping. Recording at -6 db below maximum level is a good compromise between getting far enough above the noise floor while having sufficient headroom to make edits that increase loudness. 3. space remaining between the top of a subject’s head and a monitor’s upper screen edge. Composition consideration.
headshot – photograph, often in black-and-white, of a person’s head and shoulders. Promotional headshots of performers and models are traditionally printed in 8″ by 10″ size. Headshots do not have to be black-and-white. There are no hard and fast rules, but cost is often the factor that determines the type of print for a headshot.
heat sink – a device that absorbs and dissipates heat produced by an electrical component.
height-map – 3D animation. A grayscale digital image used to store three-dimensional data. It is usually used in bump mapping, displacement mapping and for terrain mesh generation. In a height map, the intensity of a pixel’s color represents the height displacement of the mesh’s corresponding coordinate. A white pixel represents the highest point in the map while a black pixel marks the lowest point in the map.
hemispheric polar pattern – the dome shape of the region that some microphones will be most sensitive to sound. Used for boundary microphones.
Hertz (Hz): 1. the unit measurement of frequency. one hz equals one cycle per second. The frequency range of human hearing is from 20hz to 20khz (20,000hz). 2. cycles per second of an electrical signal.
hi8 – high-band 8mm. Improved version of 8mm videotape format characterized by higher luminance resolution for a sharper picture. Compact “conceptual equivalent” of super-vhs. See 8mm.
hide – another word for a blind, it is an enclosure that provides a concealed camera position within, and overlooking, an animal’s territory. It is called a “hide” because it is meant to hide a photographer from the animals’ vision.
hidden line removal – 3D. All wire-frame on the backside of objects (wire-frame facing off the camera) is excluded.
hidden line render – 3D. Like wire-frame render, except that hidden line removal is done. Surprisingly slow compared to pure wire-frame render.
hidden surface removal – all surfaces on the backside of objects (surface facing off the camera) are excluded. Sometimes called back-culling. On-end graphic systems, anti-aliasing, depth-cueing, and texture-mapping can also be incorporated. Hardware render is very fast but the output quality is usually acceptable only to real-time simulation applications. See rendering.
high concept – describes a film that includes and/or exploits certain elements (e.g. fast action, big-name stars) in order to attract a large audience.
high contrast – an image that is high in contrast (as opposed to a “flat” image), wherein the digital image file, or the negative, slide or print contains a wide density range.
high dynamic range – a series of techniques enabling a photographer to capture a wider range of proper exposure in all areas of a scene than can be recorded by a camera in one exposure alone. it is achieved by making a number of different exposures, usually through bracketing, to properly expose the brightest areas, the mid-tones and the darkest areas. the pictures (in this case, three) are combined using an image-editing application like adobe photoshop into one image that shows detail in each of the areas.
Hi-Fi – High Fidelity. Generalized term defining audio quality approaching the limits of human hearing, pertinent to high-quality sound reproduction systems.
high frequency (hf) – the frequency bands from 3 to 30 mhz.
high frequency loss – loss of signal amplitude at higher frequencies, caused for example, by passing a signal through a coaxial cable. In general, use the shortest length of cable possible. That means, finding to shortest length path to secure the cable down between equipment.
high key – an image that is mainly made up of light tones, with relatively few mid-tones or shadows.
highlights – 1. visually the brightest, or photometrically the most luminant, areas of a subject or scene. In the negative image, the areas of greatest density; in the positive image, the areas of least density. When used in the plural, highlights refer to the range of significantly brighter areas.
highlight detail – 1. details that are visible in areas of an image that are brightest. 2. details which are almost entirely a function of shoulder contrast and overexposure latitude.
highpass filter – a filter that attenuates the frequencies below its cutoff frequency; a filter that lets high frequencies through.
high resolution – images that contain an enormous amount of detail and that will provide the highest quality print are said to have high resolution. high resolution files are very large, often containing a million or more pixels.
high-speed camera – a camera designed to expose film at rates faster than 24 frames per second. Used to obtain slow-motion effects.
hiss – 1. the background noise generated in an audio system which is internally generated by microphones, amplifiers, and tape. 2. primary background signal interference in audio recording, result of circuit noise from a playback recorder’s amplifiers or from a tape’s residual magnetism.
histogram – 1. a bar chart graph that shows all of the tones in a digital image. A photographer can use a histogram to understand and manipulate exposure. Many digital cameras have the ability to show the photographer a histogram of an image he or she has taken. Most image editing applications can create a histogram for an image. A well-exposed photograph will appear as a bell curve, with lower values at the dark and light ends. If the image contains a deep shadow area, there will be high values at the dark end of the graph indicating loss of shadow detail. If there is a white area in an image, there will be high values at the light end, implying loss of highlight detail. iIf there is nothing shown at the dark and light ends,the photo lacks contrast. 2. a bar chart representing a frequency distribution; heights of the bars represent observed frequencies.
hold – 1. an interpolation setting that maintains settings from one key frame until the next key frame and uses only one frame to jump to the next setting. 2. a word used on a continuity report to indicate that a particular take should be kept, but not developed. See also print.
homage – a respectful imitation of the work of another director, as a way of paying tribute to another director or movie.
horizontal blanking – the H-sync pulse that tells the retrace electron beam to turn off at the end of each line.
horizontal blanking interval – the time during which the electron beam is turned off so that it can move into position to begin the next scan line; usually a very brief period, lasting between 5 -15 microseconds.
horizontal resolution – 1. the capability of a video camera or a display unit to resolve detail in the horizontal direction, and usually expressed as the number of vertical lines which can be distinguished in the reproduced image of a test chart. 2. chrominance and luminance resolution (detail) expressed horizontally across a picture tube. This is usually expressed as a number of black to white transitions or lines that can be differentiated. Limited by the bandwidth of the video signal or equipment. 3. specification denoting amount of discernable detail across a screen’s width. measured in lines, the higher the number the better the picture quality. See resolution.
horizontal sync – that portion of the sync signal that controls the horizontal timing (and therefore horizontal location) of each line of picture.
horns – loudspeakers (drivers) that reproduce mid to high frequencies.
host – A host is a parent or base system that is accessing a RAID array for the purpose of data storage. Any system connected to a network.
hot – usually referred to too much light in a single area. See also very hot.
hot set – a set where set dressers and prop persons have finalized placing funiture and props for filming a scene and on which a scene is in the process of being shot; labeled thus to indicate that it should not be changed or disturbed.
hot shoe – The sound you make when you sneeze. Just kidding; checking to see if you’re still awake. A hot shoe is an accessory holder (or accessory shoe) on a camera that has an electrical contact so that, for instance, a flash unit can be triggered to go off. A small, portable flash that has a contact on its “foot” can be connected to a hot shoe, which will cause the flash to fire when you press the shutter release, synchronizing one with the other so that the shutter is open when the flash is fired.
hot spare – in order to provide reliability in different system configurations, a hot spare can be installed that works as a fail-safe mechanism. The hot spare is connected but not actively working. If one part fails, the hot spare part will take over its job.
hot spot – the part of a displayed image which is unevenly illuminated, usually a bright area in the center.
house sync – the blackburst signal used to synchronize all the devices in a studio or a station.
hue – 1. sensation of the color itself, measured by the dominant wavelength. Note that one of the world’s top cognitive neuroscientists, said that “color, has nothing to do with the eye.” 2. a color. Hue is the correct term for the pure colors of the spectrum but also refers to gradations (a shade or tint) of color mixed from three basic hues known as the primary colors, or the primaries: Red, Yellow, and Blue. These produce the secondaries: Orange, Green, and Violet. Tertiaries would be the next set of mixes. For more on color, see my Image Glossary; and excellent color links on JKU One in the Art Category.
hum – unwanted low frequency audio noise caused by improperly shielded or improperly grounded audio cables and circuits.
hum and buzz – Hum is a type of noise that can creep into any audio/video system, and can originate from a number of different sources including power lines, power supplies, and television interference. Hum and buzz both exhibit pitch, unlike analog noise which has no detectable pitch. In the course of transmitting electricity from one point to another, power lines radiate electromagnetic waves at 60 Hz. Improperly shielded and unbalanced cables, particularly those in close proximity to power lines, can carry this frequency into a signal chain. In much of the world 50 Hz AC power mains are used and this can introduce interference at this frequency. A power supply also radiates a 60 Hz magnetic field, which becomes an induction problem when the supply is located near a transducer, such as a tape head or phono cartridge. The supply uses a filtering process to change a 60 Hz line into direct current for the device its powering. When the supply is faulty, any ripple in this conversion process is heard as a harmonic of 60 Hz (120 Hz, 180 Hz, etc.), so it will be at least an octave higher than hum from power lines. For those in Europe, and the rest of the world using 50 Hz power supplies, the harmonics will be heard at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, etc.. TVI (TeleVision Interference) is heard as a buzzing sound, rather than a smooth hum, and television interference happens when cables are moved around. If the hum or buzz is in your source recording, there is nothing that should be done at the point of digitization. Post production, selective use of equalization, especially notch filters set at the hum harmonics (120 Hz, 180Hz, etc.), is a good way of removing the offending hum from service copies. If the hum or buzz is in your digitization chain, you will have to isolate the source. Make sure your cables are balanced and well-shielded, and that your cable runs are short. Shielding refers to the protection of the magnetic currents between devices or within cables from stray magnetic fields or electrostatic fields. Post production, there are also tools for removing hum and buzz: 1. DeNoiseLF. and 2. Izotope RX2.
hum-bucker – a circuit (often a coil) that introduces a small amount of voltage at power-line frequency into the video path to cancel unwanted ac hum.
humidity – a term referring to the presence or absence of moisture in the air. For instance, low humidity describes conditions in a desert. Conversely, high humidity is related to tropical rain forest conditions.
hypo – fixer chemical used in film processing. It is a fixing bath composed of various chemicals including sodium thiosulfate and water. In processing film or prints, this solution removes any light-sensitive, silver-halide crystals that were not acted upon by exposure to light or by the developer, thereby stabilizing the final print or negative so that it will no longer react to light.
hyperfocal distance – 1. The closest focus distance at which both objects at infinity and closer objects are in focus. 2. Technically, it is the distance between the camera and the hyperfocal point (see below); but, in practice, hyperfocal distance is a lens setting technique that allows you to shoot sharp pictures within a certain distance range (depth of field) without having to refocus.
hyperfocal point – when the lens is focused on infinity, the nearest point to the camera that is considered acceptably sharp is the hyperfocal point. by focusing on the hyperfocal point, everything beyond it to infinity remains in acceptable focus, and objects halfway between the camera and the hyperfocal point will also be rendered acceptably sharp.
hyperstereo – using widely spaced cameras (e.g. beyond 70mm interocular) which record more stereo effect than the eyes can see. Such a large interocular distance can produce the effect of miniaturization. Also used in order to achieve the effect of more stereo depth and less scale in a scene. For close up work (e.g. miniatures etc.), special interocular camera set ups of 5mm or less have been used (known as hypostereo). For stereo effects on very long shots (e.g. landscapes) interocular camera set ups of several meters have been used (hyperstereo). One extreme example of hyperstereo is from cameras mounted in space to record the sun in 3D.
hype – overzealous praise or advertising.
hypostereo – using closely spaced cameras (e.g. less than 50 mm interocular) which record less stereo effect than the eyes can see. Such a small interocular distance can produce the effect of gigantism. If standard cameras are used, the minimum interocular distance is typically limited by the thickness of the cameras so a mirror or beam splitter system is often used, enabling interoculars down to millimetres. See gigantism.
Hz/v – Hertz per volt. A form of control voltage (CV) typically used in Yamaha and Korg analog synthesizers.