Numbers

Numbers

.
1

.

1D LUT –  A 1-dimensional lookup table is a static color translation table that converts one input value to one output value. There is a 1-to-1 correspondence in the input and output values in a 1D LUT.

16 mm –  The frame is one-fourth the size of a 35 mm frame and has a 4:3 television aspect ratio. The film can have perforations on both sides or on just one side. When compared to 35 mm, grain is more apparent.

16QCIF – Video format used by H.263 with 1408 by 1152 pixels.

1080i  – Pronounced ten-eighty interlaced or ten-eighty eye. HDTV format in which 1080 scanning lines are presented in interlaced format with 1080 vertical lines of interlaced (the “i” in 1080i) video, where 540 odd numbered lines are scanned during the first field of video in 1/60th of a second, and the other 540 even lines scanned in the second field. Together, these two fields form a complete frame of video in 1/30th of a second. The resulting image is presented in a 16:9 aspect ratio at 1920 x 1080 resolution. 1080i is used by several television broadcast and cable networks to deliver high definition video.

1080p – A high definition video format with 1080 vertical lines of progressive (the “p” in 1080p) video, where all 1080 lines are scanned at once per video frame in 1/30th of a second. Movies for Blu-ray are often scanned and played back at 24 frames per second, as that is the standard for motion picture film cameras. Progressive scanning allows for clearer, sharper images and improves how motion is displayed. The resulting image is presented in a 16:9 aspect ratio at 1920 x 1080 resolution.

1080/24p – The standardized international High Definition format having a sampling structure of 1920 (H) x 1080(V) and operating at 24-frames/second progressively scanned.

1080/60i –  The standardized international High Definition format having a sampling structure of 1920(H) x 1080(V) and operating in interlaced scan mode at 60-fields/second.

1280 x 720 –  Refers to the High Definition sampling structure of 1280(H) x 720(V). All 1280 x 720 images are scanned progressively.

16X9 – A wide-screen format in which the aspect-ratio of the screen is 16 units wide by 9 units high as opposed to the 4X3 of normal television.

1920 x 1080 – Refers to the High definition sampling structure of 1920(H) x 1080(V). 1920 x 1080 images can be scanned either interlaced or progressive.

.

2

.

2K – 1.  a digital image 2048 pixels wide. A standard 2K scan of a full 35 mm film frame is 2048 X 1556 pixels.  2.  a film image scanned into a computer file at a resolution of 2048 horizontal pixels per line.

21-cm Line – The spectral line given off by atomic hydrogen with a wavelength of 21 cm (or frequency of 1.4 GigaHertz). Since hydrogen is the most abundant atom in the universe, the 21-cm line of hydrogen as seen on film or in a photograph or other image, is an extremely useful tool for radio astronomers. (See also text in astrochem.)

23.98 or 23.976 – Refers to a video image rate of 23.976 (truncated to 23.98) frames/second. This is deliberately offset from 24 frames so that a simple 3:2 process will produce the standard 59.94-fields/second interlaced video.

24P – A video picture in “interlaced” i.e. first all the odd numbered fields are scanned then all the even ones. There are 60 fields in one frame of video and there are 30 frames per second. A Progressive scan scans the fields in order i.e. 1,2,3,4, etc. It gives more of a film-like look.

24PsF – Term used to describe a 24 (23.98) frame progressive video that divides the video in segments of odd and even lines for transmission and storage and display.

.

3

.

3GP – A media container format used for many mobile phones.

3:2 Pull-down – The telecine (the process of transferring film data to video tape) transfer technique of film frames to video fields. Film shot at 24 fps is transferred to 30 fps NTSC video with an alternating three-field/two-field relationship. Also called inverse telecine. This process is used to convert 24-frame/second film or 24p video into 54.94i video. The 3:2 process consists of two (2) parts, the “Pulldown” and the “3:2” cadence. The pulldown process is the slowing of the film or video to 23.976-frames/second. The 3:2 cadence is created by taking one (1) frame of the 24-frame source and filling three (3) of the 59.94 fields.

3.5 mm mini – a connector that is similar in appearance to a 1/4-inch phone connector, but much smaller. It measures 3.5 mm in diameter.

3.58 MHz – The approximate frequency of the subcarrier used in NTSC video to carry the color information. The actual frequency is 3.579545 MHz + 10 Hz.

3D LUT – A 3-dimensional LookUp Table is a static color translation table that converts a set of three input color values to another set of three output color values.

3-way speaker – A loudspeaker that divides the frequency spectrum into three parts (bass, midrange, treble) for reproduction through three or more drivers.

30p – 30 full-frames/second digital video progressively captured. Often referred to as 29.97p.

35 mm – The standard gauge for professional filmmakers, and the standard mainstream film format used for theatrical releases.

.

4

.

4K – 1. a digital image 4096 pixels wide. A standard 4K scan of a full 35 mm film frame is 4096 X 3112 pixels.   2. a film image scanned into a computer file at a resolution of 4096 horizontal pixels per line. 4K is considered to be the full-resolution scan of 35mm film.

4-Point Edit – Marking all four points to place the source clip into the program. The speed of the source clip is adjusted to fit the space allowed for it in the program.

4QCIF – Video format used by H.263 with 702 by 576 pixels.

4:2:2 – A commonly used term for a component digital video format. The details of the format are specified in the CCIR (ITU-R) 601 standard document. The numerals 4:2:2 denote the ratio of the sampling frequencies of the single luminance channel to the two color (chrominance) channels. For every four luminance samples, there are two samples of each color channel.

4:2:2:4 – Same as 4:2:2 but with the addition of a key channel which is sampled four times for every four samples of the luminance channel.

4.43 MHz – The approximate frequency of the subcarrier used in PAL video to carry the color information. The actual frequency is 4.43361875 MHz + 5 Hz.

4:4:4 : A sampling ratio similar to 4:2:2 that has equal amounts of luminance and both chrominance channels. Also known as CCIR-6601. For every four luminance samples, the color channels are also sampled four times.

4:4:4:4 – Similar to 4:2:2:4 except that for every four luminance samples, the color and key channels are also sampled four times.

480i – standard definition format with 480 vertical lines of interlaced (the “i” in 480i) video, where 240 odd number lines are scanned during the first field of video in 1/60th of a second, and the other 240 even numbered lines are scanned in the second field. There are two fields per video frame displayed in 1/30th of a second. Used for DVDs, with a resolution of 720 x 480.

480p – standard definition video where 480 vertical lines of progressive (the “p” in 480p) are scanned at one time to compose a video frame in 1/30th of a second. Progressive scanning allows for clearer, shaper images and improves how motion is displayed. 480p is used extensively in DVD authoring, and is one reason why the resulting 720 x 480 resolution image can be “up-scaled” with high quality on a display designed for 1920 x 1080.

.

5

.

5C – See Digital Transmission Content Protection.

5.1 – A surround sound system that uses three speakers across the front (right, left and center) and two stereo speakers in the rear (right and left), along with a subwoofer. Also an arrangement of five (5) audio channels (left; center; right; left-surround; right-surround) and one (1) sub-woofer channel.

5.1 channels  – the standard number of channels for encoding film soundtracks. The five channels are left, center, right, surround left, and surround right. The .1 channel carries frequencies below about 100Hz and is reserved for bass effects. See also LFE.

5.1-channel ready – An A/V receiver or controller with six discrete inputs that will accept the six discrete outputs from a Dolby Digital or DTS decoder. This feature allows you to add discrete digital decoding to a receiver or controller.

59.94 Fields/Second – The field rate of NTSC color television.

.

6

.

60 fields/second –  The field rate of SMPTE HDEP standard.

601 – ITU-R 601 (formerly CCIR) designates a “raw” digital video format with 704 x 480 pixels.

65 mm – The camera film format (size) for wide-screen formats such as IMAX.

.

7

.

70 mm – The release print format (size) for wide-screen formats such as IMAX.

720p – HDTV format in which the image is composed of 720 scanning lines presented in progressive format. A high definition video format  scans the 720 vertical lines at one time during a video frame in 1/30th of a second. Progressive (the “p” in 720p) scanning allows for clearer, sharper images and improves how motion is displayed. 720p is presented in a 16:9 aspect ratio at 1280 x 720 resolution. Progressive scanning also allows for better “up-scaling” of a 1280 x 720 image to fill a display screen designed for 1920 x 1080. 720p is used by several broadcast and cable networks to deliver high definition video.

720/60p – Refers to the High Definition format of a sampling structure of 1280(H) x 720(V) and operating at 60-frames/second progressively scanned.

.

8

.

8:8:8 –  Defines standard definition signals where all signals are sampled at 27MHz.