R – also Restricted. A certificate issued by the MPAA indicating that persons under the age of 16 would only be admitted when accompanied by an adult. The age was later raised to under 17 years old, and varies in some jurisdictions. See also NC-17,  PG-13.

RAID – Redundant Array Of Independent Disks. RAID is a method of enabling several physical hard disk drives to act as a single orchestrated storage device. It provides fault tolerance in the event of a disk drive failure. It also provides higher data rate throughput than a single disk drive.

RAM – Random Access Memory. 1.  The most common computer memory used by programs to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on; an integrated circuit memory chip allows information to be stored or accessed in any order and all storage locations are equally accessible. the chips in a computer that contain its working, temporary, volatile memory into which data can be written or from which data can be read by specifying an address. 2. random-access-memory is a fast, volatile form of digital memory typically used by digital samplers for live recording and editing your own samples. All data stored in ram is lost when the device is turned off, and so must be stored to a more permanent disk or hard drive, or SD chip-drive.

RAW – Sometimes called camera raw, raw format, raw image format and raw. A digital image storage format that contains the most information possible from a camera’s sensor, with 12-bit color information , a wider range of data than 8-bit formats such as JPEG. A RAW image file has had little or no processing applied to it by the camera’s software. Since RAW data is unprocessed, some photographers consider it to be the digital equivalent of a negative or a slide.

RCA – 1. a connector most often used with line level audio signals, used on all VCRs and camcorders to carry standard composite video and audio signals; also known as a phono connector. 2. Radio Corporation Of America.

RF – Radio Frequency. 1. Generally refers to signals such as radio and TV broadcast signals, or radio frequency control signals; the range of frequencies used for electrical transmission, the radio signal band of the electromagnetic spectrum.  i.e. 3 MHz — 300 GHz. It is therefore that part of the frequency spectrum in which it is possible to radiate (transmit) electromagnetic waves. Also any part of the broadcast band, including radio and television.  2. Combination of audio and video signals coded as a channel number, necessary for television broadcasts as well as some closed-circuit distribution. 3. RF connectors carry RF television signals.

RF converter – device that converts audio and video signals into a combined RF signal suitable for reception by a standard TV.

RFI – Radio Frequency Interference.  Tendency of a radio transmission to interfere with other electronic signals. Radio frequency energy is radiated by all electrical equipment  When it is a strong enough signal it becomes interference in audio systems, a spurious electromagnetic energy that interferes with electronic equipment or broadcast signals.

RF splitter – a device that provides multiple RF signals. It is used to send signal from one VTR to two or more monitors or televisions.

RF system – a closed circuit system becomes an RF system when the composite video and audio signals are modulated at a certain frequency, called a channel. RF systems require a display device (e.g. TV) with a tuner set to a selected channel to display the information modulated onto that frequency.

RGB – 1. the basic parallel component set (red, green, blue) in which a signal is used for each primary color. May also be referred to as “GBR”, the mechanical sequence of the connectors in the SMPTE interconnect standard. 2. Red, green and blue are the primary color components of the additive color system used in color television. This is different from the primary colors used by artists, in all art. That is called the subtractive color system. The primaries of the additive color system are similar to the ones used in printing inks, and color computer screens and graphics; see Julie Eclair’s Image Glossary for more info. Computers and some analog component devices use separate red, green, and blue color channels to keep the full bandwidth and therefore the highest quality picture.  3. A color model that combines red, green, and blue light in various intensities. Digital intermediate work is typically done in the RGB color space. It is the most common way of viewing and working with digital images on a computer screen. 4. The three primary colors used in video processing, often referring to the three unencoded outputs of a color camera or VTR.

RGB color resolution – the resolution of each RGB color channel is represented by n bits. An RGB-888 color system has 8 bits per channel = 24 bits per pixel color resolution. This gives a choice of over 16 million colors per pixel. Such a system is generally known as a true color or full color system. Other common standards are RGB-666 or RGB-555.

RGBS – refers to a four component signal comprised of a red signal, green signal, blue signal, and a composite sync signal.

RGSB – refers to a three component signal comprised of a red signal, green signal with composite sync added to the green channel and a blue signal. Often called sync on green.

RGBHV – refers to a high bandwidth video signal with separate conductors for the red signal, green signal, blue signal, horizontal sync and vertical sync.

RG59 – a coaxial cable type often used in television. 5 conductors separately insulated; See also RG59/U, and “Siamese” cables.

RMS – Root-Mean-Square. 1. This mathematical term is used to characterize deviations from a mean value. The term “standard deviation”, which is synonymous, is also used.  2. a measure of effective (as opposed to peak) voltage of an AC waveform. For a sine wave, it is .707 times the peak voltage. For any periodic waveform, it is the square root of the average of the squares of the values through one cycle.

RMS granularity – standard deviation of random-density fluctuations for a particular film.

ROM – Read Only Memory. 1. Permanently programmed memory that can only be entered once, normally by a manufacturer; may not be altered or removed.  2.  a permanent form of microchip memory that is used to store sounds or samples in digital synthesizers and sound modules. Sound libraries for these devices can often be expanded by adding additional ROM cards to expansion ports built in to the device. Typically these devices are called ROMplers.

RSGSBS – red, green, and blue signals with composite sync added to each color channel; referred to as RGB sync on all three.  It requires three cables to carry the entire signal.

ROP – a parameter of the bitblt function specifying a Raster OPeration (ROP) that defines exactly how to combine the bits of the source and the destination. Because a bitmap is nothing more than a collection of bit values, the ROP is simply a Boolean equation that operates on the bits. An example is to add transparency to a blt operation.

RPM – an abbreviation for Revolutions Per Minute. RPM is a valid metric for all spinning discs or cylinders (both audio and video). It is normally indicated for the various types of grooved discs including phonographs or gramophones (often 78 RPM), long play discs (33 1/3 RPM), and singles (45 RPM).

RS-170a – a document prepared by the Electronics Industries Association describing recommended practices for NTSC color television signals in the United States.

RS-232 – a standard, single-ended (unbalanced) interconnection scheme for serial data communications.

RS-250b – in telecommunications, a transmission specification for NTSC video and audio.

RS-422 – a standard, medium range balanced interconnection scheme for serial data communications. Full specification includes 9-way, D-type connectors. It is widely used for control links around production and post areas for a range of equipment.

RTMP – streaming video/audio. RTMP means Real Time Messaging Protocol. What you really need to know about streaming is 5 things. With RTMP streaming video, viewers/listeners do not have to download a complete movie or audio before it starts to play. Instead, the movie literally streams in while you play it, comparable with a running water tap. Without streaming it can take a while before a movie plays and most viewers are impatient, so for big videos, streaming is no luxury. With RTMP streaming, you can jump in the time line and the video almost immediately plays from that point onwards without having to do preloading.  99 chances out of 100, you cannot do streaming video or audio directly from your own web site unless you rent an server with expensive streaming software on board or you work via web services, which have a solution to stream your videos.  It is much cheaper than most video services. With RTMP streaming video, your movie is better protected against illegal downloads although not bullet-proof.  Streaming video only plays on the InterNet, it doesn’t play from a CD or your local computer. In other words, you need to be connected to the InterNet or an IntraNet to play it.

ru – rack unit, unit of measure of the vertical space in a rack. One ru equals 1.75 inches (44.5 mm). The height of a GVG electronics frame is typically specified in rack units.

r-v signal – r (red) signal minus y (luminance) signal; one of the color difference signals.

r-y – a designation used to name one of the color signals (red minus luminance) of a color difference video signal. The formula for deriving r-y from the red, green, and blue component video signals is .70r – .59g – .11b.

rack – an equipment rack. In video, a standard equipment rack is 19 inches (48.26 cm) wide at the front. Most video equipment is designed to fit into a standard rack.

rack focus – shifting focus during a shot in progress, typically between background and foreground subjects. Respective clarity and blurriness, or vice versa, switches.

radial tracking – an indication of how accurately the laser pick-up of a CD player can locate and follow the track on a particular disc. The RT value is inversely proportional to the depth of the pits. See push pull.

radio mic – transmitter mic or wireless mic. A microphone connected to a small radio transmitter, used in situations where cables would be cumbersome or impossible to use. FCC regulations are stringent in the use of transmitter microphones.

railroad coordinator – a person who advises a production on railroad history, architecture, business practices, economics, equipment, locations, and strategies to attain maximum on-screen production/artistic values, and then locates/scouts/evaluates railroad equipment and locations; coordinates railroad equipment assembly/dispersal at a filming location; plans and executes for camera railroad operations; exercises overall set safety management (in accordance with Us Federal Railroad, Transport Canada, and Ferrocarill De Mexico Regulations); is responsible for equipment and railroad operations budget development and management.

railroad consultant – a person who advises a production on railroad history, architecture, business practices, economics, equipment, locations, and strategies to attain maximum on-screen production/artistic values.

rarefaction – the action of the molecules moving apart.

raster – 1. the scanned or illuminated area of a CRT; the area of a TV picture tube that is scanned by the electron beam. Also the active area of visual display on a TV, monitor or any cathode ray tube (CRT).  2. a pattern of image system detection. It usually moves from left to right, and repeats over the image from top to bottom, counting the horizontal scan lines.

rasterfarian – the scanned or illuminated area of a person’s brain; the area of their brain tube that is scanned by the bud beam. Also the active area of visual display on anything, including a TV, monitor, or any cathode ray tube (CRT).

ratio – the comparison of two quantities.

rave – usually refers to a party, usually all night long, where loud “techno” music is mostly played and many people partake in a number of different chemicals. at a rave, the DJ is a shaman, a priest, a chaneler of energy – they control the psychic voyages of the dancers through his choice in hard-to-find music and their skill in manipulating that music, sometimes working with just a set of beats and samples, into a tapestry of mind-bending music. A large part of the concept of raves is built upon sensory overload – a barrage of audio and very often visual stimuli are brought together to elevate people into an altered state of physical or psychological existence.

raw footage – pre-edited recordings, usually direct from camera. See edit, master.

raw stock – unexposed and unprocessed motion picture film; includes camera original, laboratory intermediate, duplicating, and release-print stocks.

reaction shot – cutaway view showing someone’s or something’s response to primary action/subject. See cutaway.

read before write – a feature of some videotape recorders that plays back the video or audio signal off of tape before it reaches the record heads, sends the signal to an external device for modification, and then applies the modified signal to the record heads so that it can be re-recorded onto the tape in its original position.

real time – 1. the instantaneous response of a computer or device to instructions; computation or processing done in the present to control physical events occurring in the present. For example, when a digital effects system operator moves a joystick and the video images on the monitor appear to move simultaneously, the computations required to make the images move are said to have occurred in real time. 2. The normal viewing time of any film or videotape format. 3. happening simultaneously with an individual’s actions; or, occurring at the same time as other, usually human, activities. In real-time sequence recording, timing information is encoded along with the note data by analyzing the timing of the input. In real-time editing, changes in parameter settings can be heard immediately, without the need to play a new note or wait for computational processes to be completed. 4. The actual time during which video recording occurs, distinguished from the tampering of time via editing.

real-time counter – tallying device that accounts for videotape playing and recording by measure of hours, minutes, and seconds.

rear screen projection – a presentation system in which the image is projected through a translucent screen toward the audience; projecting an image through a translucent screen material for viewing from the opposite side, as opposed to front projection.

receiver – 1. any device capable of demodulating an RF signal, such as a radio, tuner, or television set. 2. television set that includes a tuner as well as an audio amplifier and speaker. Accommodates broadcast RF signals, whereas a monitor accepts composite video signals only. See monitor.

reciprocity law – expressed by (h)=et, where e is the light intensity, and t is time. When e or t are varied to the extreme, an unsatisfactory exposure results.

reconstruction filter – levels the alterations in voltage caused by the converter. See also ‘filter’.

record/capture – analog video (or audio) signals are converted into digital formats.

recorder – any device that converts an electronic signal to a magnetic pattern in the oxide coating of a magnetic tape, or to digital patterns in silicon media.

recording VCR – recipient of raw video feed (master or work-print) and recorder of edited videotape in basic player/recorder editing setup. See playback VCR.

recovery – recreation of the original stored data in a raid storage system e.g. after a hard disk failure. the missing data is recreated from the stored parity information.

red book – the most widely used standard for representing audio on CD, requiring stereo, 16-bit, 44100 hz.  See compact disc standards.

reel – a strip of film wound on a metal wheel. typical reels hold 15-25 minutes of film.

reference black level – refers to the horizontal timing discussion.

reference clip – a clip created from a source clip when the source clip is placed in the time line on the sequencer. Also known as a “sub-clip” and “secondary clip”.

reference genlock – describes the process of signals being synchronized. when combining more than one signal, one specific reference signal will help to synchronize the different sources.

reference video signal – a video signal which contains a sync signal or sync and burst signals, used as a reference for synchronization of video equipment.

reflector – lighting accessory helpful for spreading light as well as filling in shadows. Often made of lightweight reflective metal or poster board covered with metallic material.

reduction printing – making a copy of a film original on smaller format raw stock by optical printing; for example, printing a 35 mm original onto 16 mm stock. See blowdown.

refraction – the change of direction (deflection) of a light ray or energy wave from a straight line as it passes obliquely from one medium (such as air) to another (such as glass) in which its velocity is different.

reference video signal – a video signal which contains a sync signal or sync and burst signals, used as a reference for synchronization of video equipment.

reflected light – that which bounces off the illuminated subject. See incident light.

reflection – light or sound energy that has been redirected by a surface.

reflection mapping – mapping is directed to reflect from the mapped object. an excellent method to reduce render time. Ray tracing can be switched off and reflections are still achieved.

reflective technology – any display device that reflects light to create an image.

reformatting – a process in which a copy or derivative is created from the original media. This may be done for preservation or access purposes.

refraction   the bending or changing of the direction of a light ray when passing through a material, such as water or glass. How much light refracts, meaning how great the angle of refraction, is called the refractive index.

refraction mapping – mapping is directed to refract through the mapped object. Useful method to reduce render time on transparent objects. Rarely used, though, as a default texture mapping usually only affects color.

refresh rate – the frequency at which an analogue monitor or TFT redraw the image, measured in hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. As an example, a refresh rate of 60 Hz means the screen is redrawn 60 times per second. Higher refresh rates reduce or eliminate image “flicker” that can cause eye strain.

rejuvenation – a process offered by some laboratories whereby a damaged and dirty print can be rendered usable for further projection.

relational metadata – this includes the links, synchronization or relationships between essence media objects.

relay – an electro-mechanical device having electrical contacts that open or close when current is applied to the activating mechanism of the device.

release – 1. The part of an envelope that starts once the key is released. 2. When a movie is shipped to exhibitors by the distributor, it is deemed to have been released for public viewing; there are no longer any studio restrictions on who can see the movie.

release negative – duplicate negative or color reversal intermediate from which release prints are made.

release print – in a motion picture processing laboratory, any of numerous duplicate prints of a subject made for general theatre distribution. They are printed from an inter-negative.

rem-jet backing – 1. antihalation backing used on certain films. Rem-jet is softened and removed at the start of processing.   Remjet has an advantage when used for daylight loading movie film spools. If you’ve ever used the old double-8 film you’ve seen it. You have a roll of film, and you wonder why it isn’t fogged when you load it. The reason is that the remjet backing is opaque, and keeps the light from going in and fogging the film. It also works for antihalation purposes, and I think it has a lubricant benefit in movie cameras too. But my personal belief is that its primary (original) purpose in life was to allow for daylight-loading movie film reels.  2.  A process by which light, passing through the emulsion on a film or plate, is not reflected back into it but is absorbed by a layer of dye or pigment, usually on the back of the film, thus preventing halation. Some other types of antihalation are dyed support (most common for negative film), which also helps prevent light piping, dyed emulsion, and dyed gelatin backing (on opposite side of support from emulsion). Some films probably use a combination. For positive (reversal and print) films, dyed support is detrimental. Even though it does not effect the image proper, it does reduce the total amount of light passing through the image, meaning you will need brighter lamp or faster projection lens. For negatives this isn’t an issue, because you can simply adjust your exposure time to compensate. A dyed base does not affect the image at all, even though some people mistakenly believe that it does.

remote – 1. video-making performed “on location,” outside controlled studio environment.  2. equipment allowing from-a-distance control, usually without physical connections.

remote control – to control a system by remote. most video systems can be controlled by remote, for example, via an RS-422 interface, a common control interface in the field of video equipment. With it you can, for instance, command a video system to start a play-out operation from another system, while recording the played out material at the same time with the foreign system. Tape machines such as VTRs can also be controlled that way, making simultaneous play-out and record operations between different systems an easy task. see also RS-422.

remote diagnostic – to diagnose a system by remote, e.g. with the help diagnostics software by accessing a system via internet or network.

render-farm  – rendering farm. a computer network setup to render frames at a fast rate. Tasks can be distributed between dedicated machines. Rendering is highly CPU intensive, requiring 100% access to cPU, therefore dedicated machines must be used at render time. A render farm is high performance computer system, e.g. a computer cluster, built to render computer-generated imagery (CGI), typically for film and television visual effects. From the end-user perspective, a render farm is a service that puts a lot of computing power at his disposal, with the purpose of helping him deliver his projects faster. A good render time for television visual effects is anywhere between 30 minutes to one hour per frame, while multiple hours per frame is common for feature films. Some of the IMAX resolution frames required for Devastator, a character in Transformers 2:Revenge of the Fallen, took up to 72 hours per frame. How do studios get around this? They use render farms, which are banks of machines with the express purpose of
rendering finished frames. In addition to the systems that animators use, render farms simultaneously use many dedicated processors for rendering. For instance, Industrial Light and Magic had a render farm with 5,700 processor cores (and 2,000 cores in their artists’ machines) when Transformers 2 was produced. Even a small facility with only a dozen animators is likely to have more than a hundred processor cores at their disposal. Use of render farms isn’t and shouldn’t be just restricted to large studios and 3D artists. Smaller studios have their own render farms and many freelance artists have them as well.  Compositors and freelance motion-graphics artists can also make use of them. Some editing systems support the use of additional machines called render(ing) nodes to accelerate rendering, and this type of setup can be extended to architectural visualization and even digital audio workstations. During the height of production, ILM dedicated 80 percent of its total rendering capacity to Transformers 2, one time even hitting 83 percent.  How much is that? ILM’s render farm has 5700 core processors, the newest of which are dual processor and quad cores (eight cores per blade), with up to 32 GB of memory per blade. In addition, the render farm can access the 2000 core processors in the artists’ workstations, which ups the total core processors to 7700. As for data storage, the studio’s data center currently has 500 TB online. Transformers 2 sucked up 154 TB, more than seven times the 20 TB needed for 2007’s Transformers.

rendering – 1. generating the final image(s). Rendering refers to the calculation of the scene by the computer, and usually takes place during the adjusting of materials and, finally, after all human labor on the scene has ceased, i.e. at night. Rendering outputs image files (usually 24, 25 or 30 per one second of animation) to the hard-disk. 2. The simulation of light on three-dimensional objects; determining an object’s surface characteristics, such as color and texture. 3. The process of creating life-like images on a screen using mathematical models and formulas to add shading, color, and lamination to a 2D or 3D wireframe. 4. creating a 2D image from a 3D scene. to create a rendered image, the scene must first be constructed within the dedicated 3D graphics software on the computer workstation; this software allows the artist to describe geometry, lighting, surface properties, special effects and animation. 3D rendering is a creative process similar to photography or cinematography. The camera is defined at a location in 3D coordinate space, pointing in a given direction. unlike traditional photography, everything appearing in a 3D rendering needs to be created in the 3D space before it can be rendered – allowing an almost infinite amount of creative control over what appears in the scene and how it is depicted. Artists need to create this scene before the rendering can commence. The rendering output can be setup for photo-realism or be designed to appear stylized. As an animation requires as many as 30 images for every second, rendering time is an extremely important consideration in all 3D animation. Rendering time is a function not only of the power of the computer used, but also of the complexity of the scene, the lighting model, and the presence of computationally intensive elements, to mention only a few. The properties of rendered image files can be controlled according to post-production or presentation requirements. Also known as software rendering. See also rendering engine, rendering farm.

rendering engine – the part of the graphics engine that draws 3D primitives, usually triangles or other simple polygons.  In most implementations, the rendering engine is responsible for interpolation of edges and ‘filling in’ the triangle.

rendering methods – in the order of increasing complexity:  1. wireframe render – wireframe display of the camera preview window rendered. no shading, lights, etc. are calculated. Objects appear as transparent wireframe models. when the computer is not be able to do the wireframe preview of complex scenes in real-time. Then the quickest way is to do a wireframe rendering of the scene to a small image size.  Wireframe rendering outputs images in a special line format.  2. hidden line rendering – like wireframe rendering, except that hidden line removal is done. Surprisingly slow compared to pure wireframe rendering.  3. hidden line removal – all wireframe on the backside of objects (wireframe facing off the camera) is excluded.  4. hardware rendering – differs from the other rendering methods in that is is extensively used as a real-time display renderer by simulation applications. It can also be used to render image files to the hard-disk. As the name implies, hardware rendering is calculated by the special graphics hardware, as opposed to the CPU. Typically, the scene is Gouraud shaded, hidden surfaces are removed and lighting is incorporated without shadows. The amount of finesse depends on the installed graphics hardware.   Hardware rendering is very fast but the output quality is usually acceptable only to real-time simulation applications. 5. hidden surface removal – all surfaces on the backside of objects (surface facing off the camera) are excluded. Sometimes called back-culling. On high-end graphic systems anti-aliasing, depth-cueing and texture-mapping can also be incorporated.  6. raycasting – casting of rays from the eye (camera) to the scene. Consider an imaginary picture plane placed between the eye and the scene. Picture plane consists of a grid of pixels; grid resolution depends on the size of the the image to be rendered. For every pixel on the grid there is a ray cast from the eye, through the grid, to the scene. If the ray does not hit anything, it is set to the background color, which is usually black; if it hits an object, it checks if it is lit at that pixel and from what angle. The closer the angle is to 90 degrees the bigger the intensity. The intensity is then multiplied by the color of the object at that pixel. The object color is derived from the shader assigned to the object. However, if the object is transparent, the ray continues straight on until it hits the next object. There, the same calculations are carried once more. If the second object is not transparent, the pixel values from the two objects are added together. This, roughly, is the final pixel colour.
7. raytracing – enhanced version of raycasting incorporates shadows, reflection and refraction. A specific rendering algorithmic technique, based on complex mathematical algorithms, to accurately represent any conceivable representation of light, including reflections and refractions as well as any conceivable surface forms and materials. The technique follows rays from the eyepoint outward, rather than originating at the light sources. It produces results similar to ray casting or scan-line rendering, but facilitates more advanced optical effects, such as accurate simulations of reflections and refraction.  When the ray from the eye hits an object, the algorithm checks the color of the object at that pixel just like raycasting does, except that for the shadows, one ray is sent towards every light shining on the object. If these rays hit any object first, it is assumed that the current pixel is shadowed. Next, the algorithm checks if the object is transparent or reflective. If both, the original ray is split into two, one that refracts and the other that reflects. For the refracting ray the new direction is calculated using the refraction index and the surface normal. The ray continues to the new direction until the next surface is met. There, the same process is repeated recursively. The ray that is reflected, however, bounces to the direction derived from the original angle of incidence and the direction of the surface normal. Again, the ray continues until the next surface is hit. The number of successive ray splits is defined by the ray limit; the higher the limit, the more CPU intensive the calculation, and the more accurate the result. After all the bouncing is done, the pixel values from every branch of every reflection and refraction are calculated together, forming the final pixel color. Because raytracing uses rays emitted from the eye and not from the light source, it is actually a form of reverse raytracing. One serious drawback from this is that in raytracing light can never reflect or refract. For example, brightly illuminated red walls can not reflect their redness onto a white floor; or, imagine a table at the window with a glass bottle on the top of it, basking in the bright sunlight. In real life the bottle would bend the sunlight to form more or less irregular patterns of light, i.e. caustics on the table in the shadow of the bottle. Raytracing cannot handle this. In spite of the obvious short-comings, raytracing is the most widespread rendering method. 8. radiosity – radiosity was developed to patch the inherent deficiencies in raytracing. It is a global illumination model utilizing the scattering of diffuse light from light sources and reflective surfaces. It uses radiative transfer theory; radiosity calculates the light intensities on the surfaces not by dividing the picture plane into pixels, like in raytracing, but by dividing the actual surface geometry progressively into smaller and smaller units according to the light intensities across the scene. The more the intensity varies in a given area, the more units it is divided into. For every unit, light energy reflecting from all other units is calculated. On every pass the scene is divided into smaller and smaller units, until the desired level of accuracy is reached. Radiosity is extremely CPU intensive. However, when the viewing angle of the scene changes, the relative light energies do not (in the rendering method, not in IRL). This means that for the subsequent views of the scene the calculations do not need to be repeated. This makes radiosity ideal for the visualization of static architectural interiors, especially the ones with a lot of matte surfaces and plenty of soft light; but less than ideal for other visual scenes.

rendering parameters – Interlacing, a method of using video display techniques to improve the output quality of fast animation. One video frame is divided into two fields of equal amount of scanlines. every one line belongs to the first field, every other to the second. the image is refreshed with the nominal rate of 25 times per second (PAL), but the fields are actually shown one at a time. This doubles the refresh rate to 50, which reduces image flickering. This feature can be used effectively to diminish the strobing effect often produced by fast moving objects by rendering every frame twice, one field at a time, producing two images that are half the resolution in height. For example, at the frame 10, frames 10,0 and 10,5 are calculated and then merged together, field by field, to produce an image of normal dimensions. When viewed on the computer screen, a single interlaced image may look strange. Only when played back from video, the enhanced quality becomes apparent. The aforementioned video image refresh rate (25 PAL) should not be confused with the screen refresh rate, which on the computer today is often 72 hz (times per second).

rendering time – the time it takes a DTV computer to compute a wipe or DVE from two video sources, typically 30 seconds to  “render” a 30-frame effect. Analog segs do this in real time.

Re-Recording Mixer – also Sound Re-Recording Mixer. A member of the sound crew responsible for mixing the final sound elements (dialogue, music, sound effects and foley). In most feature films and some television shows there is a crew of three Re-Recording Mixers (one for dialog, one for sound effects and foley and one for music.) Sometimes in television the Music Mixer mixes the foley for expediency. There are also two-person crews in which the dialog mixer (generally considered the lead mixer) mixes music as well, with the other person mixing sound effects and foley.

resampling – converting a sampled signal from one sample rate to another without changing the length of the audio (hence without changing the playback speed or pitch). This necessarily changes the number of samples that the audio contains. Resampling can also mean converting from one sample format to another which changes the precision of each sample but not the number of samples.

reset – to restore a device to its default or original state. to restore a counter or logic device to a known state, often a zero output.

resistance – the property of a material to impede the flow of electrical current, expressed in ohms.

resistive load – a load in which the voltage is in phase with the current.

resistor – a component made of a material (such as carbon) that has a specified resistance or opposition to the flow of electrical current.

resolution – 1. the capacity of a medium to capture and playback distinctly fine details. Film is considered a high-resolution storage medium; videotape formats are considered lower resolution mediums. 2. The degree to which fine detail can be recorded or displayed. In film, it is measured in pairs of light and dark lines per millimeter; in television, measured in lines per scan; thus, the horizontal resolution of a television camera would be measured by the number of discernible vertical lines that could be displayed across the width of the screen. 3. the quality of a sensing or programming system’s components. 4. the amount of detail in an image, and he number of picture elements (pixels) in a display, also called ‘res’ (computer jargon, pronounced “rez”). The spatial detail of an image. for digital images, the number of pixels the image contains defines its resolution. Higher resolution images are sharper, smoother, and contain more image detail, but are also larger in file size. 5. For digital video, measured by the resolvable detail given the number of the vertical and horizontal pixels on a display device. Other factors such as spatial (still images), temporal (moving images or objects) and the perceived resolution of the viewer makes this more than a numbers game. It’s the measure of how well audio, video, or film can faithfully portray images or sound, and the amount of picture detail reproduced by a video system, influenced by a camera’s pickup, lens, internal optics, recording medium, and playback monitor.  Picture cell (pixel) density and bit depth are the units of measure for individual images. Sampling rate and bit depth are the units of measure for moving images and sound. See horizontal resolution.

resolution independent – equipment that can work in more than one resolution.

resolving power – ability of a photographic emulsion or an optical system to reproduce fine detail in the film image and on the screen.

resonance – 1. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation.  2. A vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system.  3. Plangency, resonance, reverberance, ringing, sonorousness, sonority, vibrancy — having the character of a loud deep sound; the quality of being resonant.  4. a relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people; rapport. 5. the quality imparted to voiced speech sounds by the action of the resonating chambers of the throat and mouth and nasal cavities. 6. The frequency that causes an object to vibrate.

reticulation – the formation of a coarse, crackled surface on the emulsion coating of a film during improper processing.

retrace time – the time it takes for the electron beam to turn off, travel to its next starting point, then turn back on to begin scanning again.

retro unit – self-contained rear projection system.

return loss – a measure of the accuracy of the impedance match between a signal source (such as a cable) and its terminating load. An unequal impedance match causes some of the power from the source to be reflected back to the source, resulting in signal distortion. The ratio of the signal voltage at the load to that voltage reflected back to the source is defined as the return loss. This ratio is generally expressed in decibels (dB).

reverb – a type of digital signal processing that produces a continuous wash of echoing sound, simulating an acoustic space such as a concert hall. Reverberation contains the some frequency components as the sound being processed, but no discrete echoes. See echo, DSP.

reverberant sound – sound waves that bounce off of multiple surfaces before reaching the listener, but arrive at the listener’s ears quite a bit later than early reflected sound.

reversal film – film that processes to a positive image after exposure in a camera, or in a printer to produce another positive film. Reversal film uses a chemical process so that the film shot in the camera is processed to a positive image. The most famous example would be Kodak’s Kodachrome (known primarily as a home movie format), although other manufacturers also produced reversal film. Reversal film, a film stock that has no negative,was produced in black and white and color formats.

reversal intermediate – first generation duplicate that is reversed to produce the same kind of image (negative or positive) as the original; used for printing.

reversal process – any photographic process in which an image is produced by secondary development of the silver halide grains that remain after the latent image has been changed to silver by primary development and destroyed by a chemical bleach. In the case of film exposed in a camera, the first developer changes the latent image to a negative silver image. This is destroyed by a bleach and the remaining silver halides are converted to a positive image by a second developer. The bleached silver and any traces of halides may now be removed with hypo.

reverse shot – also reverse angle, Hollywood reverse. a shot taken at a 120-180 degree angle from the preceding shot. When used in dialogue scenes, reverse-shot editing usually alternates between over-the-shoulder shots that show each character speaking.  See also shot/reverse shot.

rewind – an automatic console or set of bench-mounted spindles used to wind film from reel-to-reel.

rewinding – the process of winding the film from the take-up reel to the supply reel so that the head end, or start of the reel, is on the outside. If there are no identifying leaders on the film, upside-down images will signify the head end.

rewritable consumer – RC.  Time code sent through control-l interface permitting extremely accurate edits. Each frame is assigned a unique address expressed in hours minutes seconds frames.

ribbon cable – flat cable with multiple parallel conductors that have been individually insulated.

rigger – workers responsible for the setting, hanging and focusing of lighting instruments and constructing scaffolding used in making film sets.

ring – a network topology that connects terminals, computers or nodes in a continuous loop.

ring modulator – an effect where two audio signals or waveforms are combined and their sum and difference frequencies are output, usually creating a ringing metallic texture.

ringing – in a general sense, ringing refers to an undesirable oscillation exhibited in a signal. This video artifact is common to recordings created using less sophisticated, early model cameras and VTR equipment (particularly early u-matic equipment). It can be accentuated by over-enhancement or sharpening of the image using processing hardware or CRT monitor controls. When recorded in the signal on tape, it becomes part of the image. There is no remedy if the ringing has been recorded into the source signal. If not present in the recording but ringing is detected on playback, then the system needs routing adjustment or the VTR, cabling or TBC may need adjustment or maintenance.  See ghosting.

ripple – automatic updating of an edit decision list after making a change to the list. “Ripple the list.”

rise time – time required for a pulse edge to rise from 10% to 90% of the final value.

robotics – is the engineering field that builds machine with the cognitive abilities necessary to interact with the real, physical world. Current roboticists are producing machines whose cognitive performance is somewhere above the level of the simplest insects and somewhere below the cognitive performance of the simplest mammals.

roll – 1. rotating camera along the line of sight. if animated, a swaying effect is achieved.  2. text or graphics — usually credits — that move up or down the screen, typically from bottom to top. Produced with character generator. See crawl.

roll number – this is the two-digit number that is assigned by the film manufacturer to each 6,000 ft roll.

roll-off – the gradual reduction of frequencies above or below a certain point. Filters which roll off the bass frequencies are often included in unidirectional microphones to compensate for proximity effect.

rolloff slope – the sharpness of a filter’s cutoff frequency, generally measured in decibels (dB) per octave. A shallow slope, such as 6dB per octave, allows some frequency components beyond the cutoff frequency to be heard, but at a reduced volume. When the rolloff slope is steep (on the order of 24dB per octave), frequency components very close to the cutoff frequency are reduced in volume so much that they fall below the threshold of audibility. See filter, pole.

room tone – different sets and locations have different audio characteristics. A Sound Recordist will typically make a recording of the natural ambient “silence” in a set/location for the Sound Editor, who will use it as a reference point, or for when silence is required.

roping – continuous sprocket tooth indentation along the length of the film; caused by a bad splice or other damage that forces the film to ride off the sprocket.

rotation – an effect on a video system which rotates and turns the images of a video clip at a freely definable angle. see also effect.

rotoscope – a device that projects live-action film one frame at a time, onto a small screen from the rear.

rotoscoping – An animation technique in which images of live action are traced, either manually or automatically. See also motion capture.

rough cut – 1. preliminary stage in film editing, in which shots, scenes, and sequences are laid out in an approximate relationship, without detailed attention to the individual cutting points. Gives preliminary indication of eventual actual work. 2. assembly of edited shots prior to picture lock.  3. Raw, tentative edit of footage in the approximate sequence, length, and content of finished program.  See edit.

routing – describes the activity of a device within a computer network that will decide the destination of a data package. The router is connected to more than one network, is often included as part of a network switch.

routing switcher – an electronic device that routes a user-supplied signal (audio, video, etc.) from any input to any user-selected output. Inputs are called sources; outputs are called destinations.

rule of thirds – composition consideration suggesting that a picture appeals most with its primary point of interest appearing off-center. With screen divided into thirds vertically and horizontally,important elements should be targeted wherever imaginary lines cross.

rushes – 1. footage that is shot in a day; referred to as “dailies” in the U.S.  2. The first renders before final compositing.