TBC – Time Base Corrector. A highly specialized device with the primary function of making the unstable video output of a videotape recorder conform to the rigid timing of a signal generator, allowing videotape to be used as a picture source in combination with other sources driven by the signal generator. Used to correct for time-base errors and stabilize the timing of the video output from a tape machine. Corrects problems in a video signals sync-pulse by generating a new, clean time-base and synchronizes any other incoming video to this reference.
TCP – Transport Control Protocol. It is the major transport protocol in the internet suite of protocols providing reliable, connection-oriented, full-duplex streams. It uses IP for delivery.
TFP – Trade For Prints or Trade For Pictures. An arrangement between a model and a photographer where the model receives photographs in lieu of a modeling fee.
TGA – TarGA, the targa image format. An 8-bit image file format in RGB with or without key that can be used for video clips. See also key channel and video clip.
THD – Total Harmonic Distortion. An audio measurement specification used to determine the accuracy with which a device can reproduce an input signal at its output. THD describes the cumulative level of the harmonic overtones that the device being tested adds to an input sine wave. THD +n is a specification that includes both harmonic distortion of the sine wave and non-harmonic noise.
THX – also THX Division. A subdivision of Lucasfilm, ltd. dedicated to improving picture and sound for the cinema and the home. See also THX 1138.
THX 1138 – THX 1138 is a magnum manipulator. He works in operating cell 94107 along with hundreds of other people building policemen. He didn’t choose this job; it was assigned to him. Actually, he was created for this job, literally. The movie THX 1138 was written and directed by George Lucas, the father of Star Wars. While at University of Southern California (USC), George Lucas produced a short film in 1976 entitled Electronic Labyrinth: THX-1134 EB. The film won several awards, including first prize at the National Film Festival, introducing Lucas to the world. The young filmmaker, fresh out of school, was picked up by Frances Ford Coppela (The Godfather). Coppela was so impressed with Electronic Labyrinth that he pushed Warner Brothers to support a full – length version of the film. He assisted George Lucas is writing and producing THX-1138 in 1970. Although THX 1138 was mostly a flop at the box office, it is still almost beyond its time and definitely above the average science fiction. THX 1138 is a fascinating and chilling science fiction that has been lost over the years. What makes the film difficult to describe and amazing to experience is the focus on visual and aural detail, which contains most of the plot as opposed to the actions and words of the characters. In an interview, George Lucas describes his films as a 50/50 experience of both sight and sound. In the underground city in THX 1138, everything everywhere is white, stark, bleak, nothing. All the people are white, dressed in identical white clothing, head shaved bald, named by a prefix and a number. Everywhere is monitored by video cameras, computers record everything, and life is controlled. The only rooms that are not white are the control and surveillance rooms, darkened only in order to view walls and walls of video monitors. The film is a mixture of the stark white environment overlaid with the blueish-white glow of the video monitors and numerical computer read outs. But in contrast to the featureless sights are the deep layers of sound. The immense size of nothing can be heard as a deep hiss and echo. The distorted radio sounds of people talking about control and surveillance fills in the space between the drone and clatter of machines. Also, the film is filled with the portrayal of control and surveillance over the populous, but we never know who is actually in control. The final effect is both breathtaking and terrifying.
TIFF – Tag Image File Format. It is the standard file format for high-resolution bit-mapped graphics that are uncompressed. The image files are much larger than compressed files, but can be opened in all image-processing programs. Many photographers and graphic artists use the TIFF format when saving RAW image files that they have edited. It is the standard file format for images used in desktop publishing.
TLR – see Twin Lens Reflex below.
TOC – Table Of Contents. Located in the area of the disc before track 1 called the lead-in, the TOC contains information such as the number of tracks, the location of each track, the length of each track, etc. on the CD. See lead-in .
TRS – Tip, Ring, Sleeve. a three-conductor design of a phone connector that can be terminated as balanced or unbalanced.
TS – Tip, Sleeve. a two-conductor design of a phone connector used for an unbalanced circuit.
TTL – Through-The-Lens. A camera that permits you to look through the same lens used to focus the image onto the digital sensor or film has a TTL viewfinder.
TTL meter – a light meter that measures light traveling through the lens.
TV – 1. time value. 2. TeleVision. See shutter priority.
TWAIN – Toolkit Without An Interesting Name, originally Technology Without An Industry Name. The software equivalent of a travel plug adapter permitting a twain-compliant digital camera or scanner to “bridge” or communicate with, for example, an image-editing program on a computer.
Type A Film – color film that is color-balanced for photography of scenes illuminated by artificial light sources at a color temperature of 3400 K (5660.33 F), typically flood lamps.
Type B Film – color film that is color-balanced for photography of scenes illuminated by artificial light sources at a color temperature of 3200 K (5300.33 F), typically tungsten and household lamps. This is the more commonly-used of the two types.
Type C – SMPTE standard for 1-inch non-segmented helical video recording format.
t – stands for “time”. Shutter speed setting used for time exposures. The shutter opens when the release is pressed and closes when it is pressed again.
t-grain emulsion – emulsion made up of tablet-like crystals rather than conventional silver halides crystals; produces high speed films with fine grain. Proprietary technology developed by Eastman Kodak Company, also a trademark.
t-stop – a lens marking which indicates the true light transmission of the lens at a given aperture instead of the approximate light transmission indicated by the conventional f-stop marking. Like an f-number, it measures the diameter of the lens opening. T-stop factors in the loss of light through the glass lens elements.
tail – see “head and tail”.
tail end – the end of a film roll. film must be rewound before projection if it is tails out.ail ends, tails the end of a film.The film must be rewound before projection if it is tails out.
take – 1. an individual shot. When time and budgets permit, many takes may be filmed of the same shot. 2.a single continuous recorded performance of a scene. A director typically orders takes to continue until he or she is satisfied that all of his or her requirements for the scene have been made, be they technical or artistic. A continuity report stores the status of each take. Of the ones that don’t contain obvious errors, the Director will order some to be printed. See also out-take, hold.
take-up reel – the reel onto which the already projected film is wound up in a projector.
talent – generic term for the people or creatures assuming primary on-screen roles in a filming or videotaping; a general, informal term for actors (and possibly extras).
talkie – an early term for a film with sound and especially recorded spoken dialogue. It is typically used today to make a distinction between silent and sound films made in the late 1920’s and early 1930’s when sound films establishing their marketplace dominance.
tally – a lamp which lights to indicate that the associated video source is in use. Typical locations of tally lamps are on the front of video cameras and in the crosspoint pushbuttons of video switchers. The acknowledgment returned to the control panel or terminal that an operation has been executed.
tally light – automatic indicators on camera front and within viewfinder that signal recording in progress, and seen by both camera subject(s) and operator.
tally relay – a relay whose contacts close when an associated function is placed on-air. Tally relays are used in video switchers to provide the customer a way to light a camera tally lamp when the camera is placed on air at the switcher panel.
Tape Recorder Operator – also Sound Recordist. A member of the sound crew responsible for operating the audio recording equipment on a set. See also boom operator.
tape splice – film splice made with special splicing tape applied to both sides of the film.
taps – connections to the transformer windings allowing you to select different power levels from the transformer.
tearsheet – a copy of a published page (magazine or newspaper) in which a model’s picture appears. Tearsheets are generally included in a model’s portfolio as evidence of work the model has done.
teaser trailer – a short trailer that is generally released many months before a movie is actually released, to give a brief peek at what the movie will be like, and to build audience anticipation. Teaser trailers are usually much shorter than the final trailer, which reveals more of the story-line of the film. See also trailer.
Technical Advisor – also Consultant. A person with expertise in a particular field who provides advice for the production.
technical camera – precision view camera made of metal.
Technicolor – the trade name of a three color process used to make release prints; no longer used in this country or Europe, but still being used commercially in china.
techniscope – a system designed to produce 35 mm anamorphic prints from a 35 mm negative having images approximately one half the height of regular negative images and produced by using a special one half frame (2 perforation) pulldown camera. during printing, the negative image was blown up to normal height and squeezed to normal print image width to produce a regular anamorphic print that provided a projected aspect ratio of 47:20. The system was designed primarily to conserve negative raw stock.
techno – it is probably best to split techno into three groups – proto-techno, detroit techno, hardcore, and “techno-rave”. 1. Proto-Techno isn’t really a style of music per se, it’s merely a concatenation of the various artists and styles that had the biggest impact on the original creators of techno in Detroit. Hence, there isn’t much stylistic homogeneity here. Proto-Techno can be anything from the minimal, assembly-line technopop of Kraftwerk (particularly the ‘Trans-Europe Express’ album) to the nonsense, party-time funk-taken-to-its-illogical- extreme of George Clinton’s Parliament/Funkadelic to the early ’80’s hip-hop mongrelization of the two in the electro genre. 2. The hallmarks of Detroit techno are a stripped-down, aggressive funk sound, played mostly on analogue instruments (the Roland TR-808 is a favorite drum machine), and, most of all, a pounding, severe rhythm. Vocals are rare. It has no “soul” in the traditional Motown/stax sense of the word, which is not to say that the music is devoid of feeling or emotion – it’s just that the expression thereof is unconventional. “Magic” Juan Atkins, Kevin “Reese” Saunderson, and Derrick “Mayday” May are the names you need to know to fake your way through a conversation about Detroit Techno. In fact Kraftwerk and Clinton have both, at times, claimed responsibility for the Detroit Techno scene. 3. Where Detroit stuff is mainly a hybrid of European technopop and funk, your average hardcore song seems to be a speed-metal
tune played on Detroit-type instruments (although the TR-909 is the drum machine of choice). Hardcore techno is easier to get up and hyped to than its Detroit counterpart. Hardcore has brought much of the metal crowd into dance music, and reconciled dance parties with the industrial crowd as well. 4. Techno/rave, techno as product. When people complain about “techno by the numbers,” they usually mean techno/rave. This style is generally soft and accessible. You are much more likely to have a rap or other vocal in a techno/rave track than either a Detroit or hardcore track.
techno vs. ambient music – Techno is denoted by its slavish devotion to the beat, the use of rhythm as a hypnotic tool. It is also distinguished by being primarily, and in most cases entirely, created by electronic means. It is also noted for its lack of vocals in most cases. Techno also usually falls in the realm of 115-160bpm. Ambient music is designed to lull your mind through more soothing rhythms and samples.
telecine – a device for transferring (scanning) motion picture film to an electronic state, or for transferring film data to standard video tape.
telecine converter – imaging device used in conjunction with a movie projector and camcorder to transfer film images to videotape.
tele-converter – a lens mounted between a camera body and a lens (usually a telephoto lens) to increase the effective focal length of the lens, also referred to as a “tele-extender”. Different tele-converters have different magnifying powers, ranging from 1.4 times to 3 times the lens’s normal magnification (1.4x to 3x). The effect is to increase the lens’s focal length by the degree of magnification, so a 3x tele-converter used on a 50mm lens triples the image size by tripling the effective focal length to the equivalent of a 150mm lens. The disadvantages of using a tele-converter are light loss and, generally, reduced image quality.
telephoto – also telephoto lens. camera lens with long focal length, narrow horizontal field of view. opposite of wide-angle, captures magnified, closeup images from considerable distance, and exhibiting relatively shallow depth of field. Examples of 35mm camera telephoto lenses include those that are longer than a normal or standard lens, such as 85mm, 400mm and 600mm lenses, to name a few.
telephoto effect – occurs when using a telephoto lens, compressing distant elements in a scene, causing objects in the image to appear closer than they are in reality.
teleplay – a script written to be produced for television.
teleprompter – (prompter) mechanical device that projects and advances text on mirror directly in front of camera’s lens, allowing talent to read their lines while appearing to maintain eye contact with viewers.
telewriter – a writer who either adapts an existing work for production on television, or creates a new teleplay.
television movie – also TV movie, telepic. A feature-length movie funded by a TV network, intended to be premiered on television.
television series pilot – a TV series episode for a proposed television series which is produced for the benefit of the production company, TV network executives or syndication customers. The purpose behind is to show the prospective customers how a series’ premise and characters would typically be presented to an audience.
television special – also special. A television production of a singular event (such as an awards show or concert) as opposed to a regularly scheduled series. Contrast with series and television movie.
tensile strength – the maximum force that a material can withstand before deforming or stretching.
terabyte – usually considered to be 1 trillion bytes or 1 thousand gigabytes. In 2010, terabyte hard drives and solid-state modules were introduced. A terabyte is 2 to the 40th power, or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes of information. Put another way, a terabyte is 1,024 gigabytes. This level of storage capacity is necessary for recording lengthy 3D segments, which optimally involve two, simultaneous, high-definition video sources.
terminal block – an insulating base equipped with one more more terminal connectors.
terminal equipment – equipment at an end of communication lines that send and/or receive certain signals for specific services. Some examples in television include sync pulse generators, processing amplifiers, and distribution amplifiers.
terminal identity – begins when the citizen becomes a blip circulating within the feedback loop of the imploded society.
Terra-Flite – a cross between a Steadicam and a Louma Crane, used to steady images of running horses or cars driving over gravel.
test pattern – any of various combinations of converging lines, alignment marks, and gray scales appearing on screen to aid in video equipment adjustment for picture alignment, registration, and contrast. Often viewed on broadcast television in off-air hours. See color bars.
test point – typically a post in a circuit that can be monitored to test a parameter of the circuit.
test shots – photographs of a model who poses for them for free or at low cost in order to build a beginning portfolio.
test signal – an electronic signal with standard characteristics used to test the capability of circuits.
test signal generator – device that generates special television signals used for aligning television equipment.
texel – texture element. A pixel that is part of a texture map.
texture – the visual and tactile quality of the surface of an object, revealed in a photograph by variances in tone, depth and shape. Lighting has the most influence over how well texture is captured in an image.
texture anti-aliasing – an interpolation technique used to remove texture distortion, stair-casing or jagged edges, at the edges of an object.
texture filtering – removing the undesirable distortion of a raster image, also called aliasing artifacts, such as sparkles and blockiness, through interpolation of stored texture images.
texture mapping – 1. the process of projecting a two-dimensional image onto a three-dimensional surface. It is based on a stored bitmap consisting of texture pixels, or texels. It consists of wrapping a texture image onto an object to create a realistic representation of the object in 3D space. The object is represented by a set of polygons, usually triangles. The advantage is complexity reduction and rendering speed, since only one texel read is required for each pixel being written to the frame buffer. The disadvantage is the blocky image that results when the object moves. 2. The process of assigning (mapping) an image (texture) to a 3D surface, or wrapping 2D pattern or image around the 3D surface. Texture mapping can dramatically add realism even to a most rudimentary geometry. this allows a complicated colouring of the surface without requiring additional polygons to represent minute details. 3. texture mapping methods for projection, describing how the texture is wrapped around the object: planar, for flat objects; cylindrical for cylindrical objects; spherical for spheroid objects; ‘auto’, automatic projection for complicated objects. Texture sources are typically 2D texture, typically an image from various sources painted, scanned, rendered, etc.; or 3D (procedural) texture, random patterns (such as marble, wood and clouds) generated by mathematical algorithms. Mapping can be put into various shader parameters: transparency mapping, directed to effect on the object transparency white areas derived from the texture image become transparent, black areas stay opaque; bump mapping, directed to add an effect to the surface normals, so that the object looks bumpy and rough.White areas in the texture image turn the surface normal to the opposite direction than black. This is only a pseudo-effect; it applies only to rendered images. Also, the contour of the surface remains smooth. Displacement mapping, like bump mapping, except that the object surface is affected ‘for real’. Displacement mapping is only a render effect. In some cases, however, it is possible to write out the ‘carved’ geometry. Reflection mapping is directed to reflect from the mapped object. An excellent method to reduce render time;r ay tracing can be switched off and reflections are still achieved. Refraction mapping is directed to refract through the mapped object. Useful method to reduce rendering time on transparent objects. Rarely used, though. As a default, texture mapping usually only affects color.
tessellation – processing 3D graphics can be pipelined into three-stages: tessellation, geometry, and rendering. Tessellation is the process of subdividing a surface into smaller shapes. To describe object surface patterns, tessellation breaks down the surface of an object into manageable polygons. Triangles or quadrilaterals are two usually used polygons in drawing graphical objects because computer hardware can easy manipulate and calculate these two simple polygons. An object divided into quads and subdivided into triangles for convenient calculation.
thick negative – outdated term for a dense negative.
thin – terminology used to described a photographic image having a low density. As applied to the physical properties of film, thin base film materials provide for more film per given roll diameter.
thin negative – a negative lacking density, due to underexposure, underdevelopment or both.
thirty-five mm equivalent or 35mm equivalent – the equivalent focal length of a lens on a 35mm camera.
three-point lighting – basic lighting approach employing key, back, and fill lights to illuminate subject with sense of depth and texture. Strategic placement imitates natural outdoor lighting environment, avoids flat lighting. See back light, fill light, key light.
three-quarter-inch – U-matic. Most popular professional/industrial video format employing larger cassettes and three-quarter-inch tape, as opposed to the half-inch width of VHS and Beta “consumer” formats. Related equipment is generally larger and sturdier, format’s recording considered superior. U-matic is a trade name for the 3/4 inch video format developed by Sony. ¾ SP is an enhanced version. Formerly the standard for broadcast-quality, still used at many cable TV stations.
three-shot – camera view including three subjects, generally applicable to interview situations.
Through-The-Lens – commonly abbreviated as “TTL”. Refers to both exposure metering of the light passing through the lens (through-the-lens metering, and TTL flash metering)and viewing a scene through the same lens that allows light to reach the sensor or the film (through-the-lens focusing).
throw distance – the length of the projection beam necessary for a particular projector to produce an image of a specified size.
thumbnail – 1. a down-converted image to provide a preview of its original material. Thumbnails are used to show the contents of video clips in still images. Thus a complete loading and play-out of the clip only to take a look at its contents is not necessary. 2. A relatively small, low-resolution version of a larger image file used as a preview of the full-size image. When viewing images on your computer, groups of thumbnails are typically used to select those you wish to open and view in full size.
tight wind – relating to film wound tightly on a core or reel to form a firm roll that can be handled and shipped safely without danger of cinch marks or other damage to the film.
tilt – 1. rotating camera along the axis perpendicular to the line of sight, i.e moving object vertically. If animated, a nodding effect is achieved. 2. movement of the camera on its vertical axis. 3. Camera “pan” move in a vertical direction, down or up, from a stationary position. Follows movement, contrasts differences in size between two subjects, or gives viewer point-of-view sense of a subject’s height. See also dutch tilt, pan.
timbre – 1. tone color; the distinctive property of a complex sound a voice or noise or musical sound: “the timbre of her soprano was rich and lovely”; “the muffled tones of the broken bell summoned them to meet”.
2. One of the building blocks of a patch in a Roland synthesizer. A tone’s quality that differentiates it from those with similar pitch and amplification.
time-base corrector – 1. device used to correct for time base errors which can cause unstable edits, and stabilize the timing of the video output from a tape machine. These errors are caused by the slight mechanical defects inherent in the playback of video tape machines. Essential for online editing. This device can “clean up” a consumer VHS video so that it meets F.C.C. “broadcast quality” standards. 2. an electronic device with memory and clocking circuits used to correct video signal instability during the playback of videotape material. 3. the circuitry, or a stand alone component, used to stabilize the horizontal lines of an analog video image (typically originating from tape).
time code – 1. a type of signal that contains information about location in time, which is an absolute time reference (clock) recorded on the videotape, which allows every frame of picture and audio to be individually identified. Used for a synchronization reference when synchronizing two or more machines such as sequencers, drum machines, and tape decks. 2. Timing code laid down on videotape to give each frame a unique number so as to ensure exact transitions during editing, numbering video frames where a code denoting hours/minutes/seconds/frames is assigned to each frame, (e.g., 01 42 13 26). In North America,the time-code standard is SMPTE; the 8-digit address representing hour, minute, second, and frame, recorded on the videotape’s control track. SMPTE time code is applied to NTSC system, and EBU time code to PAL and SECAM systems. There are two kinds of recorded signal, longitudinal Time Code (LTC) and Vertical Interval Time Code (VITC). See also LTC and VITC.
time-code generator – a signal generator designed to generate and transmit SMPTE time code.
time code lock – to synchronize the built-in time code generator of video equipment such as a vtr to an external time code.
time delay – the time required for a signal to travel through a circuit.
time exposure – an exposure with a duration of several seconds or longer, the timing of which is measured by the photographer. A long time exposure is needed to capture star trails, noticeable as curved lines in the sky.
time lapse photography – also time lapse. A form of animation in which numerous single frames are filmed spaced at a given interval to show a process that would take a very long time to occur. i.e. a flower blooming, or the motion of the stars. Taking a series of pictures of the same basic scene at regular, timed intervals from the same viewpoint.
time line – the graphic representation of a program displayed in the sequencer window.
time line editing – a computer-based method of editing in which video and audio clips are represented on a computer screen by bars proportional to the length of the clip. These bars can be moved and resized along a grid whose horizontal axis relates to the time of the program. Compare EDL.
time shift – time shift is a feature offered on the Blackberry 10 smart phone from Research In Motion who claim that it allows the photographer who takes a picture with the phone’s built-in camera “to go forward or backwards in time”. Essentially the camera rapidly takes a number of pictures milliseconds apart when the shutter button is depressed. The user can blend the pictures to compose an “ideal” photograph – one, for example, in which all the people in the final photo may be smiling or have their eyes open.
time shifting – capability offered by the software included in some TV tuners, such as Pinnacle PCTV line, that allows consumers to pause, rewind and fast forward live TV when watching TV in a computer.
timing – laboratory process that involves balancing the color of a film to achieve consistent color and density from scene to scene. Also includes adjusting exposure settings in duplication.
tint – 1. A soft and light color, one to which white has been added. For example, white added to green makes a lighter green tint. Value changes from pure hues are called tints and shades. 2. Any subdued, high key color. 3. varying shades of white in a photographic print, from white to buff as determined by the color of the paper.
title design – also title sequence, titles. The process during which the titleist designs how title of a movie is displayed on screen.
Titleist – also Film Titleist, Title Designer, Lead Titleist. The person who designs how a film’s title appears on the screen. The manner in which title of a movie is displayed on screen is widely considered an art form. Saul Bass is considered a master title designer.
titles – graphic information appearing at the beginning of a program, generally including the title, author, producer, writer, director, and major personalities.
titling – process or result of incorporating on-screen text as credits, captions, or any other alphanumeric communication to video viewers. See character generator.
toe – bottom portion of the characteristic curve, where slope increases gradually with constant changes in exposure.
tonality – smooth transition from one tone to another, light to dark or dark to light.
tonal range – the range between the lightest and darkest areas of an image, also known as dynamic range. A picture containing very bright areas and very dark areas has a “wide” tonal range. In a black and white image, tonal range refers to the various shades of gray between solid black and absolute white.
tone – 1. typically refers to a single-frequency audio signal used as a level setting reference. 2. also known as “value” – the degree of lightness or darkness, or color variation from cool tones (blues) to warm tones (reds), in an area of a print, whether a color print or a black-and-white print.
tone mapping – It´s a technique used to approximate the appearance of high dynamic range images in media with a more limited dynamic range. Print-outs, CRT or LCD monitors, and projectors all have a very limited dynamic range. Essentially, tone mapping addresses the problem of strong contrast reduction from the scene values (radiance) to the displayable range while preserving the image details and color appearance important to appreciate the original scene content.
tone-scale neutrality and linearity – the ability of a film to reproduce truly neutral gray tones from black to white (this is a function of how the contrast ratio from red to green to blue in the negative aligns with the ratios in the print). Closely correlated is the linearity of the film’s characteristic curve in all three-color records from shadows to highlights. Poor linearity can lead to poor neutrality in smaller ranges of the tone-scale. Performance here can also be related to flesh-to-neutral reproduction and film latitude.
toning – altering the tone of a print, generally by intensification. Toners are the solutions used to produce different color shades.
Toslink – a fiber-optic-based connection for carrying digital audio, a type of optical cable used to connect a/v components, distinguished by its plug shape. many DVD players have a Toslink digital output. A Toslink connector is a specialized plug found on many optical cables. Optical cables permit distortion-free connections from a digital source to a digital recorder or digital receiver/processor; typically used to connect the audio out of a digital component such as a DVD player to a receiver. Since the signal is carried optically using light pulses rather than electronically, an optical cable is virtually impervious to magnetic or electrical interference. The data passed is the “raw” digital audio signal using laser (light) pulses. Fibre optic interface using square plastic connectors based upon the S/PDIF protocol, first developed by Toshiba. DVD players, amplifiers and minidisc recorders feature Toslink inputs and outputs. Some Hi-Fi components feature the smaller mini-Toslink connection, it’s used for connecting minidisc players to stereos and certain sound cards. Carries a digital audio stream between components such as mini disc and CD players and DAT recorders. Toslink may use inexpensive 1 mm plastic optical fiber or it can use higher quality multi-strand plastic optical fibers or even quartz glass optical fibers depending on the desired bandwidth and application. Also see coaxial digital audio output.
touch-sensitive – equipped with a sensing mechanism that responds to variations in key velocity or pressure by sending out a corresponding control signal. See velocity, aftertouch.
track – 1. to be controlled by or follow in some proportional relationship (as when a filter’s cutoff frequency tracks the keyboard, moving up or down depending on what note is played). 2. one of a number of independent memory areas in a sequencer. By analogy with tape tracks, sequencer tracks are normally longitudinal with respect to time and play back in sync with other tracks. 3. where a musical section can be recorded and replayed. 4. a single component or channel of a soundtrack. See also sound mix.
track layout – refers to the arrangement of recorded information on magnetic tapes. Tracks are either linear (running the length of the tape), or segmented either diagonally or perpendicularly across the tape. There are many variations within each technique, and some formats use a combination of techniques.
tracking – 1. the angle and speed at which the tape passes the video heads. m2. lateral camera movement aligned with moving subject; background appears to move. Camera should maintain regulated distance from subject. 3. positioning of video and/or audio heads over a videotape’s recorded signals. See head.
tracking control – the control used to maintain alignment of the video head with the tracks of video information on a tape.
tracking shot – also tracking, trucking. The action of moving a camera along a path parallel to the path of the object being filmed. See also dolly tracks.
tracks – timelines are divided into horizontal sections known as tracks. Clips are arranged in various tracks to adjust their timing relative to one another.
trailer – 1. a length of film usually found on the end of each release print reel identifying subject, part, or reel number and containing several feet of projection leader. Also a short roll of film containing coming attractions or other messages of interest. 2. an advertisement for a movie which contains scenes from the film. Historically, these advertisements were attached to the end of a newsreel or supporting-feature, hence the name. Doing this reduced the number of reel changes that a projectionist would have to make. See also teaser trailer.
trainer – someone who conditions animals to perform various behaviors on cue.
transcend – to become vastly superhuman and incomprehensible to unaugmented beings.
transcode – used interchangeably with encode and conversion. Typically changing one media format to another, and usually involves compression to make the final product into a smaller delivery package.
transcoder – a device that converts one component format to another, e.g. to convert Y, R-Y, B-Y signals to RGB signals.
transform and lighting – two separate engines on the display controller that provide calculations for the rendering process. Transform performance determines how complex objects can be and how many can appear in a scene without sacrificing frame rate. Lighting techniques add to a scene’s realism by changing the appearance of objects based on light sources.
transhumanism – philosophies of life (such as extropian perspectives) that seek the continuation and acceleration of intelligent life beyond its currently human form and human limitations by means of science and technology, guided by life- promoting principles and values.
transient – any of the non-sustaining, non-periodic frequency components of a sound, usually of brief duration and higher amplitude than the sustaining components, and occurring near the onset of the sound (attack transients).
transient disturbance – a momentary variation in power such as a surge, spike, sag, blackout, noise, or other type of transient.
transistor – a semiconductor electronic device having three electrodes and used for signal buffering, amplification, etc.
transition – a change from one clip to the next. A popular example is a cut, when the first frame of the starting video segment directly follows the last frame of the segment that is ending. Other transitions are dissolves, wipes, fades, or DVEs. Also the method of smoothly moving from one video clip or photo to another.
translucent bodies – objects that permit light to pass faintly through them, but without representing the figure of objects seen through them.
transmissive technology – any display device that creates images by allowing or preventing light to pass.
transmittance – amount of incident light transmitted by a medium; commonly expressed as percent transmittance.
transparency – an image made on positive film or color transparency film. The image is seen by holding the transparency in front of a light or projecting light through it onto a viewing surface, such as a movie screen or white wall. A transparency that is bound in a frame (cardboard or metal) for handling or for use in a projector is called a “slide.”
transparent bodies – objects that permit rays of light to pass through them.
transparent magnetic layer – thin layer of magnetic particles coating the surface of APS (Advanced Photo System) film that records information such as the picture size selected by the photographer and processing data. IX (Information Exchange) technology allows photofinishing equipment to read these instructions on the film and make processing and printing adjustments for the best results from different lighting and exposure conditions.
Transportation Captain – manages the vehicles and drivers needed for location and studio filming. The Transportation Captain does not drive vehicles,but coordinates the onset team of drivers to assist all departments with moving their supplies and personnel.
Transportation Coordinator – also Transportation Manager. The person responsible for managing drivers and co-ordinating the transportation of a production’s cast, crew, and equipment from the various locations and sets used for filming.
traveling matte – a process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately photographed background by optical printing or digital compositing. See also bluescreen, blue screen.
treatment – an abridged script; longer than a synopsis. It consists of a summary of each major scene of a proposed movie and descriptions of the significant characters and may even include snippets of dialogue. While a complete script is around 100 pages, a treatment is closer to 10.
tremolo – 1. a periodic change in amplitude, usually controlled by an LFO, with a period of less than 20Hz. A recurring switch in amplitude. tremolo modulates the volume of the selection at the depth and speed selected. This is the same as the tremolo effect familiar to guitar and keyboard players. 2. a tremulous effect produced by rapid repetition of a single tone or rapid alternation of two tones. 3. vocal vibrato especially an excessive or poorly controlled one. Compare with vibrato.
triangles per second – the rate at which a graphics controller processes triangles. It is a common industry metric for describing performance. The higher the number of triangles per second, the faster the graphics controller.
tribal – rhythm patterns and sounds which closely mimic third-world, American Indian, and other “world music” styles. The connection between modern-day raving and ancient musical and cultural rituals is thus established, and the dancer can be transported to a more primal self (in theory).
trigger – this is the same as gate.
tri-linear mip mapping – a method of reducing aliasing artifacts within texture maps by applying a bilinear filter to four texels from the two nearest mip maps and then interpolating between the two.
trim – 1. the adjusting of transitions in a sequence. 2. a simplified version of editing, that is confined to changing the in and out points of a clip. Does not include the ability to merge clips together in a sequence.
trim handles – the frames before or after the “in” and “out” points for a source clip allowing for trimming and transitions.
trimming – this process involves removing parts of a clip that you don’t want in your project without deleting them from the original source material. You can trim by adjusting the start or end trim points of a clip.
trims – manual printer controls used for overall color correction. Also, unused portions of shots taken for a film; usually kept until the production is complete.
tripod – a device (typically a pole with a platform on it) on a base of three legs to which a camera can be attached, providing support that eliminates or reduces camera movement, and an essential accessory for the photographer who uses slow shutter speeds. A tripod is useful for sharp images when using slow shutter speeds or to show blur from a moving subject. The height of the pole and of the individual legs can usually be adjusted. Various models have different characteristics. Some tripods are tiny enough to be called “table top” tripods. See monopod.
trucking shot – a camera move which films the subject from side to side.
tuner – the demodulator section of a radio, television set, or videotape recorder. Receives RF signals from an antenna or other RF sources and decodes into separate audio and video signals.
tungsten – artificial lighting with a color temperature of approximately 3200K (5300.33 F).
tungsten light – 1. light produced by an electrically heated filament, having a continuous spectral distribution. 2. In photography, tungsten light is a generic reference to standard, artificial room lighting (the light from normal household bulbs, for example, but not fluorescent lamps.) Tungsten light is produced by an incandescent electric lamp in which the filament is made of tungsten, a rare, metallic element having a high melting point.
tungsten film – film that is color-balanced for illumination from tungsten light. also known as “Type B” color film.
tweeters – loudspeakers that have high frequencies, typically 2,000 Hz – 20,000 Hz.
twin lens reflex – (TLR) a camera having two separate lenses of the same focal length – one for viewing and focusing; the other for exposing the film or image sensor. The lenses are mechanically-coupled so that both are focused at the same time.
twist – an effect that is produced in new prints by loose winding of the film, emulsion side in, under dry air conditions. If the film is wound emulsion side out under the same conditions, the undulations do not alternate from one edge to the other but are directly opposite one another. See ‘edgeweave’.
twisted pair – 1. any number of wires that are paired together and twisted around each other; can be shielded or unshielded. 2. a cable composed of two small insulated conductor twisted together. Since both wires have nearly equal exposure to any interference, the differential noise is slight.
two-shot – 1. a medium close-up shot of two subjects, usually framed from the chest up. 2. Camera view including two subjects, generally applicable to interview situations.